Which hormone causes the endometrium to proliferate?
Which hormone maintains the endometrium during the luteal phase and encourages uterine secretions?
What term is used to describe the appearance of the endometrium when the egg cell is fertilised?
Which hormones are involved in the uterine cycle if the egg is cell is actually fertilised?
if not, corpus luteum degenerates and these aren't produced
What are the elements of the proliferative endometrium which you can see on histology?
In the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle, which aspects of the endometrium grow?
What is the corpus luteum?
Remnant of leading follicle left when egg is released
Produces progesterone to maintain endometrium
In the event of no fertilisation, what does the corpus luteum degenerate to form?
What phase of the uterine cycle starts when ovulation occurs?
because progesterone is being produced
How does the endometrium change in the secretory phase?
Glands become torturous - wiggly
Glands fill with secretions
If no fertilisation occurs, what happens to the endometrium?
Loss of blood supply
Sloughing > Menstruation
What is a genetically inherited syndrome which causes GI polyposis and increases a woman's chances of developing endometrial cancer?
Lynch syndrome / HNPCC
What is the difference between abnormal and dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
Abnormal bleeding - organic cause: infection, tumour, miscarriage, ectopic/molar pregnancy
Dysfunctional bleeding - no abnormal cause: pathology is hormonal or idiopathic
What is the most common cause of dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
common at extremes of age
How does anovulation cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
No ovulation > no corpus luteum to produce progesterone
Prolonged oestrogen production > Prolonged proliferation of endometrium
Eventually sloughs due to loss of blood supply > Heavy bleeding
Which tumours can cause abnormal uterine bleeding?
What are endometriosis and adenomyosis?
Growth of endometrium / glands outwith the uterus
Grow in response to oestrogen
What inflammatory condition causes abnormal uterine bleeding?
What drugs used to control menopausal symptoms can cause abnormal uterine bleeding?
An endometrial thickness of over ___ mm is an indication for biopsy.
What investigation is used to assess endometrial thickness?
Which investigation is used to view the endometrium?
What are two methods of taking an endometrial biopsy?
Dilatation and curettage
What is a disadvantage of using a pipelle over D&C for taking an endometrial biopsy?
You can't see the endometrium while taking the sample
Between pipelle biopsy and D&C, what is the preferred method for taking endometrial samples?
Because you can see the endometrium while you're doing it
During which phase of the uterine cycle are endometrial biopsies not particularly useful?
because glands and stroma are falling apart
If endometrial glands grow for months e.g anovulation, what can they form?
Despite being in the muscle layer, how do leiomyomas cause abnormal uterine bleeding?
Contraction stretches blood vessels, stroma and glands
Endometritis is inflammation of the endometrium which can be either infectious or non-infectious.
What symptom can it cause?
How do you recognise it on histology?
Abnormal uterine bleeding
Inflammatory cells (shouldn't be there; chronic - plasma cells, acute - neutrophils & macrophages)
What type of endometritis does tuberculosis cause?
big closed off rings of inflammatory cells