What are the two important gonadotrophins?
Where are FSH and LH produced?
Posterior pituitary gland
In the first 12 days of the menstrual cycle, which hormones
a) stimulate development of ovarian follicles
b) trigger ovulation?
What hormone is produced by the corpus luteum?
How long does an average menstrual cycle last?
Which hormone, produced in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, stimulates thickening of the endometrium?
Why does menstruation occur?
Endometrium outgrows blood supply
How long does menstruation last?
4 - 6 days of 28 day menstrual cycle
When does peak menstruation occur?
Days 1 - 2 of menstruation
Menstruation should be (light / heavy).
Menstrual loss should not contain ___.
What is menorrhagia?
Prolonged, increased menstrual bleeding
What is metrorrhagia?
Regular intermenstrual bleeding
What is amenorrhoea?
No menstruation for > 6 months
What is oligomenorrhoea?
Menstruations more than 35 days apart
What is polymenorrhoea?
Menstruations less than 21 days apart
In the context of menorrhagia, what is dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
No organic cause or pathology
What is meant by a local cause of organic menorrhagia?
Limited to genital tract
What is the usual causal organism of pelvic inflammatory disease?
What structures does it tend to affect?
Which malignancies commonly cause menorrhagia?
Which specific lining of the uterus may develop carcinomas?
What is endometriosis?
Growth of endometrial tissue OUTWITH the uterus
Which hormone, which thickens the endometrial lining in the uterus, does endometriosis grow in response to?
Organic causes of menorrhagia can be ___ or ___.
local or systemic
What endocrine disease notably causes amenorrhoea and menorrhagia?
systemic causes of amenorrhoea
Why can liver disease cause menorrhagia?
Damaged liver doesn't produce as much clotting factors
Which class of drug, used to treat cardiovascular disease, may cause menorrhagia?
Anticoagulants e.g warfarin, NOACs
Which abnormal pregnancy outcomes may cause menorrhagia?
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a diagnosis of ___.
diagnosis of exclusion