1: Anatomy - Jaundice 2 Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 3 2016/17 > 1: Anatomy - Jaundice 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Anatomy - Jaundice 2 Deck (61):
1

The yellowing of the sclera and skin associated with jaundice is caused by an increase in the blood levels of ___.

bilirubin

2

Bilirubin is formed by the breakdown of ___ ___ ___.

red blood cells

3

Where does bilirubin release mainly occur?

Spleen

where RBC breakdown occurs

4

Bilirubin is a major constituent of ___.

bile

5

Where do the right and left hepatic ducts come from?

Liver

6

The right and left hepatic ducts unite to form the ___ hepatic duct.

common hepatic duct

7

Which duct travels from the gallbladder to connect to the common hepatic duct?

Cystic duct

8

The cystic duct and common hepatic duct unite to form the ___ duct.

bile duct

9

What connects to the bile duct just before it empties its contents into the duodenum?

Main pancreatic duct

10

Which part of the duodenum does the bile duct empty into?

2nd part of the duodenum

11

Where does the duodenum start?

Pyloric sphincter of the stomach

12

What are the parts of the duodenum?

1 - superior

2 - descending

3 - horizontal

4 - ascending

13

The 1st part of the duodenum is (intraperitoneal / retroperitoneal).

intraperitoneal

14

The 2nd, 3rd, 4th parts of the duodenum are (intraperitoneal / retroperitoneal).

retroperitoneal

15

Where does the duodenum end?

Duodenojejunal flexure

16

Name two hormones secreted from the duodenum.

What is their function?

Gastrin - stimulates HCl release

CCK - satiation signal, tells you that you're full

17

If a patient has duodenal ulcers, where will they experience pain?

Epigastric region

18

Which mobile structure is found on the 1st part of the duodenum?

Duodenal cap

19

The pancreas is (intraperitoneal / retroperitoneal).

retroperitoneal

20

What are the four parts of the pancreas, from left to right?

Head

Neck

Body

Tail

21

What hook-like structure is found at the inferior aspect of the head of the pancreas?

Uncinate process

22

What is anterior to the pancreas?

Stomach

23

What is posterior to the pancreas?

Pretty much everything you'll ever be asked about

except the stomach

24

Which type of cells secrete digestive enzymes into the main pancreatic duct?

Are they endocrine or exocrine?

Acinar cells (also found in the exocrine salivary glands)

Exocrine

25

Which endocrine cells, found in the pancreas, secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream?

Islets of Langerhans

26

What is the widened duct formed by the union of the bile duct and main pancreatic duct?

Hepatopancreatic ampulla

or

Ampulla of Vater

27

Where does the Ampulla of Vater drain?

Major duodenal papilla

found in the 2nd part of the duodenum

28

Accessory pancreatic ducts can sometimes drain into the duodenum via a ___ ___ ___.

minor duodenal papilla

29

Each duct connecting to the Ampulla of Vater has its own ___ to prevent backflow of bile / digestive enzymes.

sphincter

30

Which sphincter is found at the terminal end of the Ampulla of Vater, where the duct drains into the major duodenal papilla?

Sphincter of Oddi

31

Which type of muscle makes up the biliary sphincters?

Smooth muscle

32

Which type of endoscope can be used to view a dye-filled biliary tree?

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

33

What causes jaundice?

Increase in blood levels of bilirubin

34

What are two causes of biliary tree obstruction?

Gallstones

Carcinoma at head of pancreas (compressing ducts posterior to it)

35

Why does biliary tree obstruction cause jaundice?

Backflow of bile into the liver ⇒ blood

Bile contains bilirubin

 

36

Which two abdominal branches of the aorta anastomose to supply the duodenum and pancreas?

Coeliac trunk

Superior mesenteric artery

37

Which branch of the coeliac trunk gives off the gastroduodenal artery?

Common hepatic artery

one of the the three initial trifurcations, not to be confused with hepatic artery proper ⇒ right and left hepatics

38

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery's aortic origin is the ___ ___, found at vertebral level ___.

The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery's aortic origin is the __ __ __, found at vertebral level ___.

coeliac trunk , T12

superior mesenteric artery , L1

39

The superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries ___ to supply the pancreas and duodenum.

anastomose

40

What is the name given to inflammation of the pancreas?

Pancreatitis

41

If the bile duct is blocked by a gallstone, where can bile be redirected to?

Pancreas via main pancreatic duct

42

Where is pancreatic pain (e.g resulting from pancreatitis) felt?

Epigastric region (because it's half foregut)

Umbilical region (because it's half midgut)

 

43

Where can pancreatic pain radiate?

Back

44

In advanced pancreatitis, ___ can occur resulting in characteristic bruise-like skin discolouration.

Where are these discolourations typically found?

haemorrhage

flanks and umbilicus

45

Which branch of the aorta supplies the jejunum and ileum?

Superior mesenteric artery

46

Which two types of artery supply the jejunum and ileum specifically?

Jejunal arteries

Ileal arteries

47

Which two types of vein drain the jejunum and ileum specifically?

Jejunal veins

Ileal veins

48

Which vein do the jejunal and ileal arteries drain into?

Which vein then delivers this nutrient-rich blood to the liver?

Superior mesenteric vein

Hepatic portal vein

49

Which "organ" do the small intestinal arteries and veins travel within?

Mesentery

50

At which vertebral level do the superior mesenteric vessels branch off?

L1

51

The superior mesenteric vessels travel ___ to the neck of the pancreas and ___ to the uncinate process.

(anterior / posterior)

posterior to the neck

anterior to the uncinate process

52

Which dietary component does bile aid the digestion of?

Fats

53

Which lymphatic vessels do fats travel in after absorption in the small intestine?

Lacteals

54

Where do lymphatic vessels from the abdomen drain into the venous system?

Via which lymphatic duct?

Left venous angle

Thoracic duct

55

Which lymph nodes drain foregut organs?

Coeliac nodes

56

Which lymph nodes drain midgut organs?

Superior mesenteric nodes

remember the lacteals which drain fats from intestinal cells

57

Which lymph nodes drain hindgut organs?

Inferior mesenteric nodes

58

Which lymph nodes drain the kidneysposterior abdominal wallpelvis and lower limbs?

Lumbar nodes

59

Through which duct do the abdominal and lumbar lymphatics drain to empty their contents at the left venous angle?

Thoracic duct

60

Which lymphatic duct supplies the right arm and right thorax?

Right lymphatic duct

61

Where does the right lymphatic duct drain?

Right venous angle