What kind of epithelium is found in the oral cavity, oropharynx and laryngopharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Which kind of epithelium is found in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx?
Ciliated, pseudostratified, columnar epithelium with goblet cells
i.e respiratory epithelium
What is the ventral surface of the tongue?
Underside of the tongue
What is the dorsal surface of the tongue?
Name the four kinds of papillae found on the tongue.
Which papillae aren't tastebuds and instead aid in the manipulation of food around the mouth?
What is found in the submucosa of the oesophageal lining?
In which two parts of the GI tract are glands submucosal?
What is the gastro-oesophageal junction also known as?
What is the epithelial transition at the gastro-oesophageal junction / Z line?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What is found in the mucosa of stomach cells?
which contain gastric glands
What are found in the gastric pits of stomach cells?
Give two examples of cells found in the gastric pits?
What do parietal cells secrete?
Intrinsic factor (for Vitamin B12)
What do Chief cells secrete?
Pepsinogen (precursor of pepsin, a digestive enzyme)
What is unusual about the muscularis externa of stomach cells?
It has an additional layer of muscle
probably for mixing and churning food
At the ___ ___, the smooth muscle thickness of the muscularis externa increases.
What are the finger-like projections found on the mucosa of small intestinal surfaces?
What is the proper name for the pits found next to villi on the small intestinal mucosa?
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
What are enterocytes?
Main absorptive cells of the small intestine
tall, columnar and with brush borders
What are goblet cells?
What do they produce?
What does this substance do?
Small intestinal glands
Protects and lubricates cells; move things along
Where are paneth cells found?
What is their function?
Bottom of Crypts of Lieberkuhn
What cells produce hormones to control gastric secretion and motility?
Give two examples of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells.
CCK, VIP, Gastrin
What cells, found in the Crypts of Lieberkuhn, divide to replenish the epithelium?
Where in the small intestine are Brunner's glands found?
What is the function of Brunner's glands?
Release alkaline mucous (bicarbonate?) to neutralise HCl in chyme
remember that bile is alkaline
Where in the small intestine are the tallest villi found?
Which folds, found in the jejunum, allow the villi to be tall and prominent?
What lymphoid tissue is found in the ileum?
In the large intestine only, the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa is split into three layers - what are these layers called?
Mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae)
Submucosa (w/ glands sometimes)
Muscularis externa (circular, longitudinal (teniae coli))
The teniae coli are found in the (circular / longitudinal) muscle layer of (small intestine / large intestine).
Which offshoot of the caecum has a lot of lymphoid tissue?
___ tissue in the appendix declines with ___.
Which nervous system is found within the digestive tract?
Enteric nervous system
What are the two nerve plexuses visible in GI tract tissue?
Submucosal plexus (in the submucosa)
Myenteric plexus (between the circular and longitudinal muscle of muscularis externa)
In which layer is the myenteric plexus visible?
In which layer is the submucosal plexus visible?
oxyntic cells are "pink fried eggs with purple yolks" slide 19
large intestinal crypts "like test tubes in a rack"