8: Histology Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 3 2016/17 > 8: Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Histology Deck (40):
1

What kind of epithelium is found in the oral cavityoropharynx and laryngopharynx?

Stratified squamous epithelium

2

Which kind of epithelium is found in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx?

Ciliated, pseudostratified, columnar epithelium with goblet cells

i.e respiratory epithelium

3

What is the ventral surface of the tongue?

Underside of the tongue

4

What is the dorsal surface of the tongue?

Top

5

Name the four kinds of papillae found on the tongue.

Fungiform

Circumvallate

Filiform

Foliate

6

Which papillae aren't tastebuds and instead aid in the manipulation of food around the mouth?

Filiform papillae

7

What is found in the submucosa of the oesophageal lining?

Submucosal glands

8

In which two parts of the GI tract are glands submucosal?

Oesophagus

Duodenum

9

What is the gastro-oesophageal junction also known as?

Z line

10

What is the epithelial transition at the gastro-oesophageal junction Z line?

Stratified squamous epithelium

to

Columnar epithelium

11

What is found in the mucosa of stomach cells?

Gastric pits

which contain gastric glands

12

What are found in the gastric pits of stomach cells?

Gastric glands

13

Give two examples of cells found in the gastric pits?

Parietal cells

Chief cells

14

What do parietal cells secrete?

Intrinsic factor (for Vitamin B12)

Hydrochloric acid

15

What do Chief cells secrete?

Pepsinogen (precursor of pepsin, a digestive enzyme)

16

What is unusual about the muscularis externa of stomach cells?

It has an additional layer of muscle

probably for mixing and churning food

17

At the ___ ___, the smooth muscle thickness of the muscularis externa increases.

pyloric sphincter

18

What are the finger-like projections found on the mucosa of small intestinal surfaces?

Villi

19

What is the proper name for the pits found next to villi on the small intestinal mucosa?

Crypts of Lieberkuhn

20

What are enterocytes?

Main absorptive cells of the small intestine

tall, columnar and with brush borders

21

What are goblet cells?

What do they produce?

What does this substance do?

Small intestinal glands

Mucin

Protects and lubricates cells; move things along

22

Where are paneth cells found?

What is their function?

Bottom of Crypts of Lieberkuhn

Antibacterial

23

What cells produce hormones to control gastric secretion and motility?

Enteroendocrine cells

24

Give two examples of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells.

CCKVIPGastrin

25

What cells, found in the Crypts of Lieberkuhn, divide to replenish the epithelium?

Stem cells

26

Where in the small intestine are Brunner's glands found?

Duodenum

27

What is the function of Brunner's glands?

Release alkaline mucous (bicarbonate?) to neutralise HCl in chyme

remember that bile is alkaline

28

Where in the small intestine are the tallest villi found?

Jejunum

29

Which folds, found in the jejunum, allow the villi to be tall and prominent?

Plicae circularis

big folds

30

What lymphoid tissue is found in the ileum?

Peyer's patches

31

In the large intestine only, the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa is split into three layers - what are these layers called?

Teniae coli

so:

Mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae)

Submucosa (w/ glands sometimes)

Muscularis externa (circular, longitudinal (teniae coli))

Serosa

32

The teniae coli are found in the (circular / longitudinal) muscle layer of (small intestine / large intestine).

longitudinal

large intestine

33

Which offshoot of the caecum has a lot of lymphoid tissue?

Appendix

34

___ tissue in the appendix declines with ___.

Lymphoid

age

35

Which nervous system is found within the digestive tract?

Enteric nervous system

36

What are the two nerve plexuses visible in GI tract tissue?

Submucosal plexus (in the submucosa)

Myenteric plexus (between the circular and longitudinal muscle of muscularis externa)

37

In which layer is the myenteric plexus visible?

Muscularis externa

38

In which layer is the submucosal plexus visible?

Submucosa

39

oxyntic cells are "pink fried eggs with purple yolks" slide 19

40

large intestinal crypts "like test tubes in a rack"