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Flashcards in 1 - Cholesterol Deck (19):
1

What are the guidelines for LDL cholesterol?

  • *70 - ideal 
  • < 100 - optimal
  • 100-129 - near optimal
  • 130-159 - borderline high
  • 160-189 - high
  • >190 very high

2

What are the guidelines for total cholesterol?

  • <200 - desirable
  • 200-239 - boderline high
  • >240 high

3

What are the guidelines for HDL cholesterol?

  • < 40 - low
  • > 60 - high

4

What are the guidelines for triglycerides?

  • <150 - normal
  • 150-199 - boderline high
  • 200-499 - high
  • >500 - very high 

5

Why is Lipitor the #1 drug in terms of sales worldwide for the 6th year in a row?

New lower target of "70" for optimal LDL range is virtually impossible to reach without "statins"

6

What is a class of medications used to reduce cholesterol by binding bile acids in the gut?

Bile Acid Sequesters

7

What are some common preparations of Bile Acid Sequesters?

"cole-" or "chole"

  • cholestyramine resin
  • colesevelan
  • colestipol

8

What drug decreases liver triacylglycerol synthesis necessary for VLDL production?

Nicotinic Acid (Niacin)

9

What's the common side effect of niacin?

Facial flushing

10

What do fibric acids do?

  • Lowers plasma triglycerides
  • Increases HDLs
  • Inhibits cholesterol synthesis in liver

11

What are the common preparations of fibric acids?

Look for "fiber" sound in name!

  • clofibrate (Atromid)
  • fenofibrate (Tricor)
  • gemfibrozil (Lopid)

12

What is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol?

HMG-CoA reductase

13

What type of drugs are the "statins"?

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors

14

There's new evidence that shows that HMG CoA reductase inhibitors may have _____________ activity?

Anti-inflammatory

15

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors cannot be taken if patient has what?

Liver disease - drugs may alter liver function 

16

What are some side effects of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors?

  • myalgias 
  • rhabdomyolysis - disintegration of the muscle tissue

17

What are the important dental drug interactions with HMG CoA reductase inhibitors?

Avoid use of:

  • Macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin) 
  • Systemic (azole) antifungals

They will promote rhabdomyolysis

18

What is Vytorin?

Combination of a statin drug (Zocor) with ezetimibe (Zetia)

Vytorin = Zetia + Zocor 

Long term studies shows no greater benefit of using this combo compared to statin alone

19

What are the oral considerations with lipid lowering agents?

  • Multiple drug interactions
  • Assess risk for increased bleeding
  • Avoid azole antifungals, macrolide antibiotics with HMG CoA reductase inhibitors
  • Assess changes in cholesterol lowering meds at each visit