1. Disorders of the Blood Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Haematology > 1. Disorders of the Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. Disorders of the Blood Deck (42):
1

Functions of blood (3)

Transport nutrients
Removal of waste
Transport host defences

2

Blood composition (5)

Cell components
Plasma proteins
Lipids
Nutrients
Water

3

What are albumin and globulin useful for

Oncotic pressure

4

Types of blood investigations (7)

FBC/CBC
RBC
RCC
WCC
PLT - platelets
HCT - haematocrit
MCV - mean cell volume

5

What is HCT and usual value (2)

Proportion/ratio of cells to liquid
0.4/0.5

6

Types of blood disorders (7)

Anaemia
Leukopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Pancytopenia
Polycythaemia
Leucocytosis
Thrombocythaemia

7

Definition of anaemia

Low Hb

8

Definition of leukopenia

Low WCC

9

Definition of thrombocytopenia

Low platelets

10

Definition of pancytopenia

All cells reduced (pan = all)

11

What can one of the following blood disorder be attributed to
Anaemia
Leukopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Pancytopenia

Reactive change to the environment

12

What can multiple of the following blood disorders be attributed to
Anaemia
Leukopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Pancytopenia

Bone marrow failure

13

Definition of polycythaemia

Raised Hb

14

Definition of leucocytosis

Raised WCC

15

Definition of thrombocythaemia

Raised platelets

16

What can one of the following blood disorders be attributed to
Polycythaemia
Leucocytosis
Thrombocythaemia

Reactive or pre-neoplastic

17

What can multiple of the following blood disorders be attributed to
Polycythaemia
Leucocytosis
Thrombocythaemia

Pre-neoplastic (myelodysplasia)

18

Definition of leukaemia (2)

Neoplastic proliferation of white cells
Usually a disseminated malignancy

19

Definition of lymphoma

Neoplastic proliferation of white cells
Usually a solid tumour

20

When would a blood transfusion be given (2)

One of more components of the blood has to be replaced quickly (trauma)
Bone marrow cannot produce enough blood cells

21

Indications for blood transfusion (2)

Blood loss
Specific production problems

22

Transfusion complications (3)

Incompatible blood (fever, jaundice, death)
Fluid overload (HF)
Transmission of infection (BBVs)

23

Components of haemostatic disorders (3)

Vascular component
Cellular component
Coagulation component

24

What is the vascular component of haemostatic disorders

Retraction of vessels (collagen disorder)

25

What is the cellular component of haemostatic disorders

Platelet number and function (aspirin and NSAIDs irreversible break platelets)

26

What is the coagulation component of haemostatic disorders

Adequate clotting and clot lysis (number and range of clotting factors, thrombotic/thrombolytic system balance)

27

When may blood disorders be assumed clinically (2)

History of prolonged bleeding after extractions/minor cuts
If purport, ecchymosis and petechiae are visible

28

Blood disorder investigations (4)

FBC (platelet number)
Bleeding time (platelet function)
INR/APPT
LFT (clotting function synthesis)

29

Definition of haemophilia (2)

Inherited bleeding disorder
Deficiency in FVIII or IX

30

Who does haemophilia affect (2) and why

Males
Females are carriers
Sex-linked recessive condition

31

Definition of thrombophilia and example

Excessive tendency to clot
Usually DVT

32

Why might thrombophilia be life-threatening

Pulmonary embolism formation

33

What can exacerbate thrombophilia (5)

Thrombo-promoting actions
Smoking
Immobility (travel)
Surgery
Pregnancy
Medicines (oestrogen only contraceptive pill)

34

Definition of therapeutic coagulopathy (2)

Medical manipulation of the coagulation system
Makes clotting less likely

35

Function of therapeutic coagulopathy (2)

Reduce platelet adhesion and function (prevent arterial thrombosis)
Reduce coagulation cascade activity (prevent venous thrombosis)

36

Types of anti platelet drugs (5)

Aspirin
Dipyridamole
Clopidogrel
Prasugrel
Ticagrelor

37

Types of anticoagulant drugs (5)

Warfarin
Heparin
Apixaban
Dabigatran
Rivaroxiban

38

Definition of porphyria

Abnormality of haem metabolism

39

Types of porphyria (2)

Hepatic porphyria
Erythropoietic porphyria

40

Clinically relevant types of porphyria (3)

Variegate
Acute intermittent
Hereditary co-porphyria

41

Clinical effects of porphyria (5)

Photosensitive rash (at any time)
Neuropsychiatric disturbances in acute attacks (motor/sensory changes, seizures, autonomic disturbances)
HTN
Tachycardia
May be fatal (Death

42

Triggers of porphyria (5)

Poorly understood
Drugs
Pregnancy
Acute infections
Alcohol
Fasting