2. Leukaemia and Lymphoma Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Haematology > 2. Leukaemia and Lymphoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2. Leukaemia and Lymphoma Deck (39):
1

Haematological malignancies result in (2)

Clonal proliferation
Formation of cancer cells

2

How do cancer cells form (3)

Uncontrolled proliferation
Loss of apoptosis
Loss of normal function/products

3

Causes of haematological malignancies

Abnormalities during cell divisions, specifically DNA mutations (translocation)

4

Types of acute lymphoid malignancies

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

5

Types of chronic lymphoid malignancies (4)

Chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Multiple myeloma

6

Types of acute myeloid malignancies

Acute myeloid leukaemia

7

Types of chronic myeloid malignancies (2)

Chronic myeloid leukaemia
Myeloproliferative disorders

8

What are myeloproliferative disorders

Pre-neoplastic overproduction of blood cells/components

9

Definition of leukaemia (2)

Group of cancers of the bone marrow
Prevent normal manufacture of blood

10

Patogenesis of leukaemia (3)

Clonal proliferation
Replacement of marrow
Increasing marginalisation of productive normal marrow (marrow failure, organ infiltration)

11

Clinical presentation of leukaemia (6)

Anaemia
Neutropenia
Thrombocytopenia
Lymphadenopathy
Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly
Bone pain (especially in kids)

12

Progressive symptoms of anaemia (4)

Breathlessness
Tiredness
Easily fatigued
Chest pain/angina

13

Signs of anaemia (3)

Pallor
Signs of cardiac failure (ankle swelling, breathlessness)
Nail changes (brittle nails, koilonychia)

14

Clinical presentations of neutropenia (2)

Infections associated with portals of entry
Reactivation of latent infections

15

Symptoms of neutropenia (2)

Recurrent infection
Unusual severity of infection

16

Signs of neutropenia (3)

Unusually patterns of infection with rapid spread
Response to treatment but then recurrence of infection
Signs of systemic involvement (fever, rigorous, chills)

17

Neutropenia investigations

Unusual pathogens, usually bacterial (usually low pathogenicity organisms)

18

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia (4)

Bruise easily/spontaneously
Minor cuts fail to clot
Gingival/nose bleeding
Menorrhagia

19

Signs of thrombocytopenia (4)

Bruising
Petechiae
BoP
Bleeding/bruising following procedures

20

Features of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL (3)

Results in a catabolic state (fever, sweats, malaise)
Lymphadenopathy
Tissue infiltration

21

Features of acute myeloid leukaemia, AML (3)

Similar to ALL
Results in a catabolic state (fever, sweats, malaise)
Lymphadenopathy
Tissue infiltration

22

Features of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, CLL (3)

B-cell clonal lymphoproliferative disease
Mostly asymptomatic
Usually slow progression, not requiring treatment

23

Features of chronic myeloid leukaemia, CML (3)

Occurs in neutrophils and their precursors
95% of patients have 'Philadelphia' chromosome
Fatigue, weight losses eating, anaemia, bleeding, splenomegaly

24

Definition of lymphoma (2)

Clonal proliferation of lymphocytes arising in a lymph node or associated tissue
Usually a solid tumour but contains some blood cells

25

Types of lymphoma (2)

Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

26

Lymphoma investigations (3)

CT
PET
MRI

27

Requirements of lymphoma staging (3)

Number of nodes involved and site
Extra-nodal involvement
Systemic symptoms

28

Presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma, HL (3)

Painless lymphadenopathy (typically cervical)
Fever, night sweats, weight loss, itching
Infection

29

Presentation of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL (3)

Causes - microbial factors strongly implicated, autoimmune disease, immunosuppression
Lymphadenopathy (often widely disseminated)
Extra-nodal disease more common (Waldeyer's ring)
Symptoms of marrow failure

30

Definition of multiple myeloma

Malignant proliferation of plasma cells

31

Features of multiple myeloma (3)

Monoclonal paraprotein in blood and urine
Lytic bone lesions --> pain and fracture
Excess plasma cells in bone marrow --> bone marrow failure

32

Clinical presentation of multiple myeloma (4)

Infection
Bone pain
Renal failure
Amyloidosis

33

Treatment of haematological malignancies (4)

Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy
Monoclonal antibodies
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

34

Haematological malignancies usually undergo the process of (4)

Induction
Remission
Maintenance and consolidation
Relapse

35

Function of chemotherapy

Target cells with a high turnover rate

36

Side effects of chemotherapy (5)

Hair loss
Vomiting
Nausea
Tiredness
Risk of oncogenesis in surviving patients

37

Function of radiotherapy (2)

Cytotoxic effect of ionising radiation
Irradiation of tumour cells and adjacent healthy tissue

38

Advantage of monoclonal antibodies

Specific to cancer cell antigens

39

Types of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (2)

Allogenic (from liver donor)
Autologous (self-transplant)