3. Anaemia Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Haematology > 3. Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Anaemia Deck (31):
1

Definition of anaemia

Reduction in Hb in the blood (not necessarily red cells)

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Causes of anaemia (3)

Reduced production
Increased losses
Increased demand (pregnancy)

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Reduced Hb production occurs because of (2)

Reduction in haem
Reduction in globin

4

Reasons for haem reduction (2)

Reduced number of normal cells (due to marrow failure)
Deficiency states (iron, folate, B12)

5

Reasons for global reduction

Abnormal global chains (thalassemia, sickle cell, chronic inflammatory disease)

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Definition and examples (3) of haematinics

Things used to make up RBCs
Iron
Vitamin B12
Folate

7

Diseases that reduce iron absorption (2)

Achlorhydria (lack of stomach acid, may be drug-induced, PPIs)
Coeliac disease

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Causes of iron loss (4)

Gastric erosion and ulcers
IBDs
Bowel cancer
Haemorrhoids

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Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency (3)

Lack of intake
Lack of intrinsic factor
Disease of terminal ileum (Crohn's)

10

Causes of folate deficiency (2)

Lack of intake
Absorption failure

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Complication of foetal folate deficiency

Spina bifida (open spinal defect/neural tube defect)

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Definition of thalassemia

Normal haem production, genetic mutations of global chains

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Types of thalassemia (2)

A-thalassemia
B-thalassemia

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Clinical effects of thalassemia (5)

Chronic anaemia
Marrow hyperplasia (skeletal deformities)
Splenomegaly
Cirrhosis
Gall stones

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Thalassemia management (2)

Blood transfusions
Prevention of iron overload

16

Definition of sickle cell anaemia

Abnormal global chains - change in shape of RBCs

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Cause of shape change

Due to low Hb and O2 environments

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Effects of sickle cell anaemia (2)

RBCs cannot pass through capillaries
Can lead to tissue ischaemia (pain, necrosis)

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Anaemics can have (2)

Normal RBCs but heavier bleeding
Abnormal red cells (autoimmune, hereditary)

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Types of anaemia (3)

Microcytic (RBCs too small)
Macrocytic (RBCs too large)
Normocytic (fewer RBCs)

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Causes of microcytic anaemia (2)

Iron deficiency
Thalassemia

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Causes of microcytic anaemia (2)

Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate deficiency

23

Causes of normocytic anaemia (2)

Bleeding
Renal and chronic disease

24

Definition of reticulocytes

Immature (almost mature) RBCs

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What should be measured to diagnose anaemia (4)

Measure Hb
Measure RCC
Measure HCT
Measure MCV

26

Clinical presentations of anaemia (2)

Pale mucosa
Smooth (iron/ferritin deficiency) or beefy (vitamin B12 deficiency) tongue

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Signs of anaemia (3)

Pale
Tachycardia
Enlarged liver/spleen (rare)

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Symptoms of anaemia (5)

Tired
Weakness
Dizziness
SoB
Palpitations

29

Anaemia investigation (5)

MH
FBC
FOB
Endoscopy/colonoscopy
Renal function
Bone marrow examination

30

Anaemia treatment (3)

Replace haematinics
Transfusions (production failure)
EPO replacement (production failure)

31

Differences between bleeding and deficiency (3)

RCC - reduced number/different RBC structure
HCT - abnormal HCT
MCV - reduced mean cell volume