1: Physiology: Deamination and Transamination class notes Flashcards Preview

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What is Deamination and Transamination?

Amino groups are removed from AAs, thereby producing acetyl CoA molecules or molecular intermediates of the TCA cycle, both of which can be oxidized in the presence of oxygen.
In some cells (hepatocytes and proximal tubule cells of kidney), TCA intermediates may be converted into glucose molecules that are released into the bloodstream so that they may be oxidized by other cells.


What gluconeogenesis?

the pathway by which non-carb precursors are converted into glucose


In transamination and deamination, AAs can be converted into what?

Acetyl CoA
Acetoacetyl CoA (which can be converted into acetyl CoA and ketones)
a number of TCA intermediates


What AAs can be oxidized in the TCA cycle?

All of them


The AAs that can be converted into TCA intermediates may also be converted to what?

to glucose cells (hepatocytes, proximal tubule cells) that possess enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway.


other gluconeogenic molecules besides AAs include?

Propionate (which is converted into succinyl CoA)
Lactate (which is converted into pyruvate)


Gluconeogenesis occurs in what cells?

liver 90%
kidney 10%


Cells of liver or kidney amp up their enzymes of the cycles by?

sending messages o liver or kidney cells to tell them to do more or less of the cycles (gluconeogenesis)


When you have more glycolysis mean you have what?

you have less gluconeogenesis (telling cells to use more glucose)


If animal is starving what happens?

they do more gluconeogenesis o get more glucose


What is reciprocal regulation?

turning one cycle up while turning another down
ex: more glycolysis means less gluconeogenesis


What is deamination?

removing an amino group


If you do not exert any energy what happens to protein?

if you eat a lot of protein but do not exert any energy, the protein can be turned into fat.
but normally the body wants to turn protein into new protein and do this by working out more.


If you have too many AAs what can happen?

an take off the amino groups and make carbs using all the CH groups.


Gluconeogenic substrates uses the TCA cycle to do what?

to get turned into glucose.


However one of the gluconeogenic substrates do not require the use of the TCA cycle to get made into glucose, which one is it?



Where does the TCA cycle occur?



Why does gluconeogenesis occur in the liver and kidney cells in the cytoplasm?

these are the cells that contain the enzymes to do this reaction.

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