1. The Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

Year 1 - Term 2: Carriage of Oxygen > 1. The Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. The Mediastinum Deck (25):
1

 

What are the divisions of the mediastinum?

 

Superior, inferior (anterior, middle and posterior)

2

 

What are the contents of the superior mediastinum?

 

Thymus

Veins (brachiocephalic and SVC)

Phrenic (C3,4,5), vagus and recurrant laryngeal nerves

Arteries (aortic arch and great vessels)

Trachea

Oesophagus

Thoracic duct 

Lymphatic trunks

3

 

What spinal level is the trachea and where is the carina?

 

What spinal level is the oesophagus?

 

C6 - T4, T4/5

 

C6 - T10

4

 

Where is the superior and inferior mediastinum division?

 

Transthoracic plane/manubriosternal joint (sternal angle) T4/5

5

 

What are A, B and C?

Q image thumb

 

A: Phrenic nerve

B: Vagus nerve

C: Recurrant laryngeal nerve

6

 

What is the phrenic nerve sensory and motor to?

 

Sensory to pericardium

Motor to diaphragm

7

 

How do the L and R recurrant laryngeal loop back?

 

L under aortic arch

R under R. subclavian artery

8

 

What 3 structures does the vagus innervate in the mediastinum?

 

Oesophagus

Heart

Bronchi

9

 

What does the anterior mediastinum contain?

 

Thymus

10

 

What does the middle mediastinum contain?

 

Pericardium, heart

11

 

What does the posterior mediastinum contain?

 

Primary bronchi

Oesophagus (and oesophageal plexus)

Descending aorta

Thoracic duct

Axygos and hemi azygos veins

12

 

What are the pericardium layers?

 

Fibrous

Parietal

Visceral

13

 

What does the fibrous pericardium do?

 

Protective, anchors heart - attached to great vessles and diaphragm, prevents over dilation

14

 

Which pericardium layer is the epicardium associated with?

 

Visceral

15

 

What is pericardial effusion/tamponade?

 

Fluid buildup between parietal and visceral pericardium

16

 

What are A,B, and C?

Q image thumb

 

A: fibrous pericardium

B: parietal pericardium

C: visceral pericardium

17

 

What are the 3 heart wall layers and what are they made of?

 

Out to in:

Epicardium: visceral pericardium 

Myocardium: cardiac muscle, bundles

Endocardium: continuous with endothelium

18

 

What comprises the serous pericardium?

 

Parietal and visceral pericardium

19

 

What is A?

Q image thumb

 

Azygos vein

20

 

What is the basic structure of the thoracic arterial supply?

 

Internal thoracic artery -> aterior intercostal arteries (run with corresponding vein and nerve as bundle)

Descending aorta -> posterior intercostal arteries (3-12)

 

AI and PI anastomose in each intercosta space

 

EXCEPT 1 and 2, which branch from costocervicl trunk of subclavian.

21

 

What is the order from inferior to superior of the intercostal neurovascular bundle?

 

VAN

22

 

What are A, B and C?

Q image thumb

 

A: posterior intercostal artery

B: lateral cutaneous branch

C: anterior intercostal artery

23

 

What are the main compoents of the thoracic venous drainage system?

 

Anterior intercostal veins -> internal thoracic vein

Posterior intercostal veins -> azygos vein (R) and hemi azygos veins (L)

24

 

What are A and B?

Q image thumb

 

A: azygos vein

B: hemiazygos vein

25

 

What are 6, 9 and 10?

Q image thumb

 

6. Internal thoracic artery

9. Thyrocervical trunk

10. Costocervical trunk

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