A: R. subclavian
B: brachiocephalic trunk
C: R and L common carotids
D: L. subclavian
Axillary artery: Where does it origionate, where does it end, where does it run, where does it send branches too?
From subclavian, starts at lateral border of 1st rib, ends at lateral border of teres major (m), runs through axilla, branches to chest wall and shoulder girdle (humeral circumflex)
Label A and B.
A: brachial artery
B: profunda brachii
Where is the brachial pulse?
Medial to distal tendon of biceps brachii.
A: Ulnar artery
B: Radial artery
C: Common interossus
Describe the path and supply of the ulnar and radial arteries, including palmar arches.
Ulnar: runs down medial aspect f forearm, supplies medial muscles of forearm and the common interossus branch supplies deep flexors and extensors of forearm. Superficial arch mainly from ulnar artery
Radial: runs down lateral aspect of forearm, supplies lateral muscles of forearm. Deep arch mainly from radial artery
A: superficial palmar arch
B: metacarpal artery
C: digital artery
D: deep palmar arch
NB. metacarpal and digital arteries arise from arches and supply fingers
Palmar arches: anastamoses of R and V arteries
Where is the radial pulse?
Lateral to tendon of FCR
Where is the ulnar pulse?
Lateral to tendon of FCU, more difficult to palpate b/c runs deeper and lies under pisiform and palmar fascia
Describe the allen test and what it is for.
To determine whether patency of ulnar/radial arteries normal.
1) Pt makes fist, apply digital pressure on both radial and ulnar arteries on distal end of forearm
2. Hand should look pale and bleached
3. Release 1 side e.g. ulnar side and hand should reperfuse in about 3s if R. arch ok
Label A and B
A: basilic vein
B: cephalic vein
NB: deep veins take same name as arteries.
If body is A, remember it as A -> B -> C in anatomical position
What is the most common vein for venepuncture?
Where do the basilic and cephalic veins drain into? What is the path back to the heart?
Median cubital vein across cubital fossa.
Axillary vein -> subclavian vein -> brachiocaphalic veins -> superior vena cava -> heart
NB: perforating veins between deep and superfical veins
Where does the abdominal aorta end, and what does it divide into?
L4, common iliac arteres
Where do the common iliac arteries divide?
What do they divide into, and what do they then supply?
S1 (sacroiliac joint level)
Internal iliac artery - supplies pelvic walls and pelvic viscera, and gluteal region
External iliac artery - supplies lower limbs
What arteries arise from the interal iliac artery?
Superior and inferior gluteal arteries (supply gluteal muscles)
What structure does the obturator artery pass through?
Which obturator branch supplies the hip joint?
What is the femoral artery a continuation of, and where does it begin?
External iliac artery, begins as it passes under the inguinal ligament.
FA passes down anteromedial thigh giving off several branches.
Label 1-6 of the femoral triangle.
1. femoral artery
2. femoral nerve
3. femoral vein
4. ASIS and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
5. inguinal ligament
Where is the femoral pulse?
Below inguinal ligament and mid-inguinal point/ half way between pubic sympysis and ASIS
What does profunda femoris supply?
What arteries arise from profunda femoris that supply head and neck of femur?
What does profunda femoris pass through to enter popliteal fossa?
Main arterial supply to thigh muscles (quads, hamstrings and adductors)
Lateral and medial circumflex arteries (anastamose)
Gap in adductor magnus - the adductor hiatus, where it becomes the popliteal artery
What does the poplitael artery contribute to and split into?
Where is the popliteal pulse?
Anastomisis that supplies knee. Splits to anterior and posterior tibial artery.
Diffucult to find as deep in popliteal fossa. Pt prone with knee flexed to relax the popliteal fascia and hamstrings. Pulsations best felt in inferior part of fossa where popliteal artery is closer to tibia.
What does the anterior tibial artery supply?
What is dorsalis pedis?
What does dorsalis pedis supply?
Dorsiflexors and extensors of ankle and foot.
Continuation of anterior tibial artery distal to inferior extensor retinaculum.
Supplies the dorsum of foot giving off branches to arcuate artery from which metatarsal arteries arise.
Is the posterior or anterior tibial artery larger?
Where does posterior tibial pass?
What branch does the posterior tibial artery give off, and what do they both supply?
Down posteromedial side of leg.
Fibular/peroneal artery (deeper branch). Supply posterior plantarflexors and lateral leg muscles.
Where is the dorsalis pedis pulse?
Lateral to tendon of extensor hallucis longus
Where is the posterior tibial pulse?
Half-way between medial malleolus and calcaneal (achilles) tendon.
What does the posterior tibial divide into at the ankle?
What do they supply?
What forms the plantar arch, and what arises from the plantar arch?
Lateral and medial plantar arteries.
Supply plantar surface of foot (sole)
Lateral plantar, digital arteries arise from it.
A: Lateral plantar artery
B: plantar arch
C: medial plantar artery
A: small saphenous vein
B: great saphernous vein
C: dorsal venous arch
Where does the small saphenous vein drain into?
What is the longest vein in the body, and where does it drain into?
What way do valves allow blood to flow?
Popliteal vein at knee.
Great saphenous, drains into femoral vein distal to inguinal ligament
Superficial -> deep only
NB: superficial veins have numerous perforating veings that connect with deep veins
List 5 things that help with venous return against gravity.
1. movement from superficial to deep veins
2. respiratory pump
3. muscular pump
4. smooth muscle (vasoconstriction)