4. Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract Flashcards Preview

Year 1 - Term 2: Carriage of Oxygen > 4. Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4. Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract Deck (30):
1

 

Which ribs are true, false and floating, and what does it mean?

True: 1-7 (directly attached to sternum)

False: 8-10 (indirectly attached to sternum)

Floating: 11-12

 

NB: intercostal spaces and neurovascular structures are named after the rib above

2

What are A,B and C?

Q image thumb

A: jugular notch

B: costal cartilages

C: costal margin

3

 

What are the 2 points of articulation of the rib with the vertebrae?

 

Vertebral body

Transverse process

A image thumb
4

 

Ribs tilt inferiorly. What level is the 2nd rib at anteriorly?

 

T4/5

5

 

Label the parts of the sternum

Q image thumb

A: Sternal angle

B: xiphoid process

C: manubrium

4: body

6

 

What is unusual about this patient?

Q image thumb

 

Cervical ribs.

May cause problems e.g. impinge on brachial plexus

7

 

What happens in inspiration?

 

Ribs and sternum raises, increase in thorax volume and decrease in pressure, air moves in

8

 

Label the 3 layers of chest wall muscles that help move the ribs, and describe their properties.

Q image thumb

 

A: Innermost intercostal - deficient posteriorly - same as internal

B: Internal intercostal - go in opposite direction to external

A & B act as unit.

C: External intercostal - ends anteriorly at mid-clavicular line, forwards and downwards orientation, contract = pull ribs up

9

 

What are the intercostal muscles innervated by?

 

 

Anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves

10

 

What are A & B?

Q image thumb

 

A: Internal intercostal muscle 

B: External intercostal muscle

11

 

What order does the neurovascular bundle following the ribs go in?

 

RIB

VAN

NAV

RIB

A image thumb
12

 

Label A - D

Q image thumb

A: thoracic aorta

B: posterior intercostal artery and vein

C: interior intercostal artery and vein

D: internal thoracic artery and vein

E: azygos vein

13

 

Label A and B

Q image thumb

A: internal thoracic artery

B: R. subclavian artery

14

Label A-C

Q image thumb

A: Superior vena cava

B: azygos vein

C: hemiazygos vein

15

Label the major and accessory muscles involved in inspiration, A-F

Q image thumb

 

A: SCM

B: Pectoralis major

C: Rectus abdominis

D: Pec minor

E: Serratus anterior

F: External intercostal muscles

16

What is the diaphragm innervated by?

Phrenic nerve C3-5

17

 

What spinal levels are:

Vena cava

Oesophagus

Aortic hiatus

 

T8

T10

T12

18

Label A-C

Q image thumb

A: Aorta

B: Inferior vena cava

C: Oesophagus

19

 

What muscles are invovled in quiet inspiration and expiration?

Inspiration: diaphragm, external intercostals

Expiration: passive (muscle recoil)

20

What muscles are invovled in deep inspiration and forced expiration?

Inspiration: accessory muscles: scalene muscles, SCM, pectoralis minor

Expiration: interosseous part of internal intercostal, adominal muscles, serratus posterior inferior

21

Label A and B, and what they're innervated by. What is C?

What is between A and B, and what is its function?

Q image thumb

A: Visceral pleura, innervated by sympathetic nerves, covers external lung surface

B: parietal pleura, innervated by intercostal nerves T2-12

C: Phrenic nerves C3-5

 

Pleural fluid, reduces friction so tissue doesn't wear, and creates surface tension. PF produced by parietal pleura.

22

Where is the lung apex?

Where is the cardiac notch?

What are the pleural boundries?

What is the potential space during quiet respiration, inferiorly, called?

2cm above clavicle

4th rib

8, 10, 12 post.

costophrenic recess

23

Describe and give reasons for the differences in the size and shape of the R and L lungs.

R lung - shorter and wider due to liver

L lung - taller and narrower due to heart

24

Label A-F

Q image thumb

A: horizontal fissure

B and C: oblique fissure

D: lobar bronchus

E: segmental bronchi

F: carina (sternal angle)

25

Desrcibe the post. and ant. trachea.

Describe how the trachea bifurcates.

C-shaped cartilage ant., smooth muscle post.

R.bronchus - continuum, L.bronchus - goes off horizontally

26

Describe the flow of air from nose to alveoli.

Trachea -> main bronchus -> lobar bronchus (3 in R, 2 in L) -> segmental bronchi -> conducting bronchioles -> terminal bronchioles -> respiratory brochioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs

27

What is a bronchopulmonary segment?

Subdivision of lobe

Pyramid shaped

Surrounded by CT

Segmental bronchus, artery, lymph vessels and autonomic nerves

Segmental vein lies in CT between segments

A diseased segment can be removed surgically

28

Describe the route of blood through the pulmonary circuit

 R ventricle pumps blood to pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> PA carry blood to lungs for gas echange -> oxygenated blood returns to heart in pulmonary veins

29

Label A-D

Q image thumb

A: clavicle

B: Cardiophrenic angle

C: costophrenic angle

D: hila of lungs

30

What anterior rib postion is the diaphragm?

6th

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