Plasma makes up what percentage of total extracellular fluid?
What are the percentage consitiuents of plasma and their jobs?
90% H2O (solvent, lubricant, cushion, heat dissapator), 2% glucose + salts, 8% protein (albumin (60% - transport and oncotic pressure), globulin (36%, immune), fibrinogin (4%, blood homeostasis)).
Label A-C (with percentages)
A: plasma 55% (water 90%, solutes 10%)
B: erythrocytes (45%)
C: Leukocytes and thrombocytes (platelets)
List the ions found in blood plasma. What does the electrolye balance do?
How does blood work as a buffer (equation)?
Inorganic = K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, bicarbonate, phosphate. Balance maintains BP and supports heart and muscle contraction. Also dissolved CO2 as carbonic acid, H and bicarbonate ions/bound to amino groups of proteins inc. Hb (pH maintenance)
H+ + CO3- -> (2CO3 -> (2 + H2O
Metabolic processes prod H+, buffered by excess HCO3- and CO2 = prevents acidosis. Also histadine residues in free Hb and bind H+
What are the 4 functions of plasma proteins?
What does plasma carry?
1. Inflammatory response - e.g. complement proteins and cytokines
2. Protection from infection - Abs
3. Clot formation - fibrinogen -> fibrin
4. Intravascular osmotic effect - albumin
Nutrients, waste, hormones, chemicals (e.g. drugs), free or protein bound
What are the functions of blood?
What are the 3 types of blood cells?
Where is blood made, and why is it thicker there?
(Specialist CT) O2, immunity, transport, pH, temperature, H2O transport
RBC, WBC, platelets (thrombocytes)
In bone marrow (thicker there b/c still has nucleus)
What kind of cells are in A and B and what is the difference between them?
A: in bone marrow, thicker b/c nuclei present, more viscous
B: in blood, more fluid
Label A-E in blood cell development
A: myeloid SC
C: lymphoid SC
How many RBC are made per second?
What is the main control of their production?
What is Hb made up of?
How does it interact with O2?
Tetramer, 4 globin chains: 2 alpha and 2 beta, haeme group.
O2 binds to haeme, changes alpha and beta coformation. H+, CO2 and 2,3 DPG promotes O2 release in tissues - bohr effect
What is anaemia? What are the male and female values for it?
Describe the body's response to anaemia.
List some signs and symptoms of anaemia.
Low Hb concentration from decreased production or increased loss. Not diagnosis - always a cause. Hb <130g/l (male) <115g/l (female)
Anaemia -> reduced O2 supply to kidney -> increases erythropoetin (hormone) -> increases RBC production by bone marrow
Signs: pale, tachycardic, renal hemorrhage, systolic murmur, heart failure. Symptoms: tireness, SoB, palpitations
What are the 3 types of anaemia? (Give values and reasos for each)
1. microcytic (<80fL) - Fe deficiency, thalassemia
2. normocytic (80-100fL) - blood loss, leukaemia, sickle cell, renal failure
3. macrocytic (>100fL) - B12 deficiency, alcohol, liver disease
NB: ususally Fe deficient - infection, mensturation, growth, pregnancy, GI loss e.g IBC, cancer
Label cell A. What is happening in B?
B: platelets budding off
What are platelets?
Define thrombocytopenia and haemophilia
Small circulating fragments of megakaryocytes from bone marrow. 10 day life span. 1 mill prod /s
Platelets form plug, clotting proteins e.g. fibrinogen produce thrombus.
Low platelet levels, can cause bleeding and bruising.
Low clotting factors
Describe the 5 types of WBC
1. neutrophils - 2-4 lobes, most common, 1 mill/s made, engulf, neutrophilia (increases in infection/inflammation/hemorrhage), neuropenia (decreases in spesis/HIV/bone marrow failure e.g. leukemia/B12 deficiency)
2. eosinophils - bilobed nucleus, bright orange granules, increases in parasitic worm diseases, asthma, eczema, produced cytokines
3. basophils - 2-3 lobes, large blue granules contain histamine
1, 2 and 3 are GRANULOCYTES
4. monocytes - kidey shaped nucleus, similar function to myeloid cells, become macrophages - ingest foreign microbe, processes and presents its antigens to a T-cell, increases in chronic viral infections
5. lymphocytes - small, dense, few granules, T-cells (coordinate immune response), B-cells (prod Abs), NK cells (viral and tumor immunity), increases in viral infections, life = 1 week-100yrs
Label cells A-E
Bone marrow failute affects all three types of blood cells. What are the signs and symptoms, and the causes?
Fatigue, bleeding, infections death. From e.g. leukemia, aplastic anaemia, chemotherapy, toxins, B12 deficiency.
Describe the 3 ways of detecting haematological problems.
1. FBC: RBC (absolute number and cell size), Hb (amount in blood/in RBC), cell/plasma components, platelets (absolute number), EBC (WCC)
2. blood films (if abnormal FBC, on glass, examine cell morphology)
3. bone marrow biopsy