Flashcards in 1 The relationship between psychology and philosophy Deck (8)
What is the current two-step method used in psychological research?
1. Deduce hypothesis from theory (generate predictions)
2. Test hypothesis empirically by
i) making controlled observations
ii) measuring variables
iii) using stats
What is the difference between axioms, philosophical statements and theoretical statements?
Axioms - usually self-evidently true.
e.g. All A is A
Philosophical statements – statements about general issues. Either T or F.
e.g. all events are caused
– less general statements
e.g. consciousness depends on presence of language
What step should precede the formulation of hypotheses?
Conceptual analysis of theory
What are the two ways of testing a theory?
1. The hypothetico-deductive method – conducting empirical tests of hypotheses logically derived from the theory.
E.g. All planets have elliptical orbits
If Zorbitron 5 is a planet, it will have an elliptical orbit
Test to see if Z5 has elliptical orbit
2. Conceptual analysis – conducting logical/philosophical tests of the theory itself.
In what 4 cases is a theory logically deficient?
1. Concepts and definitions are vague or ambiguous
2. Concepts and definitions are clear but involve fallacious reasoning
3. At least two statements within the theory are inconsistent
4. It rests on assumptions that are demonstrably false
What does John Locke's under-labourer do?
"Clears the ground a little, removing some of the rubbish that lies in the way to knowledge”
What 2 things should a theory do?
1) Explain a phenomenon
2) Allow you to generate predictions