13b Michell Motivation notes Flashcards Preview

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1

Why is a motivational concept necessary to explain behaviour?

Because belief alone is not sufficient to explain the occurrence of bodily movements. Cognition is policy neutral. E.g. I might believe that conforming to the Atkins diet will cause me to lose weight, but this belief could be used equally to explain either my conformity to that diet or my failure to so conform, depending upon whether I wanted to lose weight or to avoid losing weight.

2

Cognition is ______-neutral while behaviour always embodies some ______.

Cognition is policy-neutral while behaviour always embodies some policy.

3

What is the belief-desire model of explaining behaviour

a) P believes that doing A leads to B
b) P desired B

These premises explain P doing A

4

What is psychological determinism?

Psychological determinism is the thesis that all behaviour is caused: behaviour only comes about because it is brought about by antecedent conditions.

5

Whats is the idea of free will?

Free will is the idea that behaviour, at least to some extent, is uncaused and freely chosen.

6

There can be no ________ of free will. If a system possessed free will, then it would be _________ to understand how it worked.

There can be no mechanism of free will. If a system possessed free will, then it would be impossible to understand how it worked.

7

Accepting psychological determinism means recognising that people always do what they do because they are caused to by a confluence of ______ and ________ causes

Accepting psychological determinism means recognising that people always do what they do because they are caused to by a confluence of internal and external causes.

8

Why does the idea of goal-directedness fail as a scientific concept?

It implies that people do a behaviour IN ORDER THAT something will happen. This is inconsistent with determinism. It implies that an effect could be a reason for a cause's happening.

9

Events never happen in order to bring about their ______.

Events never happen in order to bring about their effects.

10

To locate the reason for an event’s occurrence in its effects is a form of explanation known as ________.

To locate the reason for an event’s occurrence in its effects is a form of explanation known as teleological.

11

In what sense may teleological explanations be logical if NOT taken literally?

By stating that P did A in order for B to happen may simply mean:

P did A because P believed that A would cause B.

12

Why does the fact that desire involves a desired object make it inconsistent with determinism?

Because a person with a desire for an object will act for the sake of attaining the goal. It's a teleological explanation.

13

In what way is desire a dispositional concept?

To say that P desires B is to say that under certain conditions P will work to achieve B. If P desires B, P is disposed to act in a certain kind of way. The concept of desire, instead of telling us what something is, tells us what something will do.

14

Dispositional concepts are confusing because they masquerade as ______ or _______ of things. They are not. They are nothing more than a ______ _______ to behaviour.

Dispositional concepts are confusing because they masquerade as properties or states of things. They are not. They are nothing more than a useful guide to behaviour.

15

What did Hume's analysis of causation conclude about cause and effect?

Cause and effect are always logically distinct occurrences. One does not entail the other.

16

What is logically incoherent about dispositional concepts?

The concept (e.g. desire) and the relevant behaviour are not logically distinct – the behaviour is implied by the concept.

17

Every desire is always a desire for ________ and, so, the concept of desire contains within itself a ________ ____ to the kind of behaviour it is invoked to explain (i.e., achieving the desired object).

Every desire is always a desire for something and, so, the concept of desire contains within itself a conceptual link to the kind of behaviour it is invoked to explain (i.e., achieving the desired object).

18

Describe Maze's model of a Motivational System as proposed in The Meaning of Behaviour (1983).

Maze's model is that of several instinctual, innate drives (a neural, not mental mechanism). There is an excitation centre – an on switch – and a satiation centre for each instinctual drive – an off switch. E.g., the hunger drive's excitation centre responds to blood sugar levels, ghrelin etc. When active, the drive causes an innately given consummatory action.

19

According to Maze (1983)... when active, a drive causes (under specific conditions) an innately given ____________ ________.

According to Maze (1983)... when active, a drive causes (under specific conditions) an innately given consummatory action

20

What is meant by the policy of a motivational drive?

The consummatory action caused by the drive. The policy of the hunger drive is to eat.

21

An active drive recruits ________ (beliefs about the environment) relevant to both the _______ ______ and the other ________ necessary for that action’s successful execution.

An active drive recruits cognitions (beliefs about the environment) relevant to both the consummatory action and the other conditions necessary for that action’s successful execution.

22

Behaviour may present the illusion of being _____-_________. Instead, it is sustained and guided causally by the joint action of ________ and _________ processes.

Behaviour may present the illusion of being goal-directed. Instead, it is sustained and guided causally by the joint action of drive and cognitive processes.

23

How does Maze's drive theory account for different feelings of desire intensity?

Different patterns of neural stimulation resulting from, and corresponding to, the different levels of drive activation.

24

Are we are of the drive mechanisms directly?

No, but we may notice its effects on attention. E.g. attention towards food when hungry.

25

Behaviour is always infused with some ______ and this infusion can only derive from the ___________ context within which it is located.

Behaviour is always infused with some policy and this infusion can only derive from the motivational context within which it is located.

26

Understanding how behaviour works becomes a matter of understanding how _________ directs ________ in the interests of the _________ _________.

Understanding how behaviour works becomes a matter of understanding how cognition directs behaviour in the interests of the instinctual drives.

27

Why can we not have direct knowledge of instinctual drives? Why is discovering these drives a job for neurophysiology?

Innately given consummatory actions are not distinguishable from other actions by any obvious mark. Someone eating might be hungry or not hungry.

28

Why might we have only superficial understanding of why we REALLY engage in actions?

We are not aware of instinctual drives. Our self-awareness is also, like all cognitive acts, motivated by some drive. The role of conscious awareness is to SERVE the drives, not to disclose them.

29

In what social context has the language of desires, intentions and purposes been constructed?

In the context of the social practice of giving an account of our motives to others. Certain desires, intentions and purposes are approved of and others not.

30

Why might the idea of self be indistinguishable from instinctual drives?

Because it is one or other of the instinctual drives that enacts processes usually associated with the self. It initiates and sustains behaviour, including the processes of attention upon which cognition depends. Thus is can be stated that it is the instinctual drives that distinguish the subject term of the cognitive relation.