Flashcards in 4 Operationalism, Realism and Instrumentalism Deck (11)
What does an operational definition describe?
The actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable.
Operational definitions confuse __________ with __________. If guilt is inducing subjects to lie, it can’t be a consequence of causing them to lie.
Operational definitions confuse relations with properties. If guilt is inducing subjects to lie, it can’t be a consequence of causing them to lie.
According to Logical Positivism, are all theoretical statements either are true or false?
No, some are neither, they're meaningless (metaphysical nonsense).
According to Realism, are all theoretical statements either are true or false?
Yes, you just assume concepts (such as superego) exist until evidence suggests otherwise.
How does Instrumentalism treat theoretical statements?
Simply as an instrument for prediction. Doesn't matter if they're true or false.
Theoretical terms in Instrumentalism are treated as _____________.
Terms in Instrumentalism are treated as fictions.
According to Instrumentalism, theory is useful if it’s able to connect ___________ _______ with one another
Theory is useful if it’s able to connect observable variables with one another
"... these hypotheses need not be true, nor even probable; if they provide a calculus consistent with the observations, that alone is sufficient."
This quote from Osiander's preface to Copernicus's 'The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres' (1543) is an example of what school of thought?
If a model of cognition is not meant to be accurate, but simply a way of predicting behaviour, what school of thought does that represent?
The connectionist approach to modelling neural networks is an example of what kind of thinking?