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Flashcards in 10 - Roles in the Community Deck (50):
1

Early Social Interactions

Babies
- not able to develop full friendships
- are sensitive to emotional states
- can have simple social interactions

Preschoolers
- sharing
- pretend play

Primary School
- larger peer group
- less supervision
- increase in an interest in playing with same-sex friends
- pretend play peaks at 6y, then declines
- increase in verbal and physical aggression

Adolescence
- peer interactions predominate social interactions
- increase in cross-sex interactions

2

Early Childhood Conflict

Young Children about 2y
- tend to argue about things

Older Children
- tend to argue about ideas
> older children are better at resolving conflicts themselves

3

Level of Affiliation

- Social Interactions
- form relationships (friendships)
- relationships form larger social groups and communities

4

Friendships

= ongoing reciprocal positive relationship

Infant
- can't form friendships
Toddlers
- can develop friendships
> start sharing
School age
- more nuanced ideas of friendship
> begin to understand the reciprocity of friendships
+ linked to development of theory of mind
+ increased understanding of others' mental states
> bullying begins to occur

Stages of friendship development
Ages 7-9
- reward-cost Stage
> expect friends to offer help, share common activities and ideas

Ages 10-11
- Normative Stage
> expect friends to express similar values and attitudes
> develop the idea of loyalty and commitment

Ages 12-13 (adolescence)
- Empathic Stage
> really expect loyalty and commitment
> expect that they engage in self-disclosure
+ share secrets and keep secrets
> start to feel more jealousy of friends
> develop strong expectations of their friends

Advantages of friendships
- help develop social skills
- protect against negative events (stresses and loneliness)
- can be negative (superficial friendships)

Imaginary Companions
- relatively common
- slightly more common in girls (barely)
- usually associated with positive outcomes of cognitive development

5

Romantic Relationships

- starts in Adolescence
- tend to initially be full of conflict
> short but intense

Maturation between 15-17
- older adolescents tend to have longer relationships with deeper bonds and more compromise

- no association with sexual development
- more likely associated with culture

Choosing adolescent romantic partners:
- significant correlations between:
> peer rated popularity
> peer rated body appeal
> peer rated physical attractiveness
> self rated depressive symptoms
- so people who are similar tend to go together
> peer rated sadness is not a significant correlation



6

Social Groups

Cliques
- develop in late primary school
- stable groups of peers where people tend to stay together
- actively exclude others
- generally quite small
- normally one sex

Crowds
- develop in secondary school (cliques disappear)
- more often mixed gender
- groups are bigger and live longer (more stable)
- defined by shared values or favoured activities


Sociometry
- studying how peers interact with one another
- one way of doing this is to assess the psychometric status using a peer-nomination technique
> ask everyone in a class 3 kids you like the most, 3 that you dislike the most

Sociometric Types
Popular
- liked by many, disliked by few
- physically attractive
- friendly, assertive but not aggressive

Rejected
- high number of dislikes
> non-aggressive rejected children
+ tend to have emotional problems (anxiety/depression)
> aggressive rejected children
+ tend to have behavioural problems (aggressive, poor self-control)
- tend to have a hostile attribution bias
> interpret approaches as hostile

Neglected
- not liked or disliked
- tend to be shy, withdrawn
- not associated with any negative outcomes

Controversial
- liked by many, disliked by many
- not a very stable category
- can be popular

Average
- all other kids

*rejected and popular groups tend to be the most stable


7

Peer interactions

0-2
- not really social
- don't share
- may have joint arousal
- don't really have friendships
- don't really operate in groups

2-5
- patterns of play become more elaborate
- increase in sharing and pretend play
- start to purposely pick friends
- some dominant hierarchy, but kids are unaware of their position (not fully developed sense of conceptual self)

5-11
- large increase in social interactions
- development of friendships
- increase in verbal aggression, gossip and bullying
- later on, development of cliques
> more social comparison

11+
- peer interactions take over social interactions
- decreased importance in cliques
- increased importance in crowds
- more interaction with the other gender

8

Social Networks

Three-link social influence
- your friend's friend's friend
> people up to this level will influence your social category
> fourth link influence is negligible

Lifestyle patterns are related to social networks
- obesity, happiness, smoking, exercise

9

Parents vs Peers

- from 2.5y kids prefer peer companions to adults

To what extend do you imitate behaviours from parents vs peers?
Study:
- using twin and family designs (done mainly in terms of substance abuse
Results:
- in twins aged 12-30
- regularly drinking parents is associated with a higher risk of regular drinking in the child
- alcohol use of the co-twin was strongly related to alcohol use of the participant
- alcohol use of non-twin siblings is relatively unimportant
- friends' alcohol use is associated with the individual
- associations diminished in longitudinal analysis

Results:
- younger group of twins (12-15)
- early initiation of alcohol use is strongly genetic
- frequency of drinking is strongly related to shared environmental factors

- Many other studies find a moderate heritability of alcohol initiation
- environment might be the more influential factor

10

Stages of Adulthood

Three Broad Stages
- Early Adulthood (18-40)
- Middle Adulthood (40-60)
- Late Adulthood (60+)

11

Changes in ageing

Physical changes in ageing
- physical decline from mid-20s
- strength declines rapidly
> from 45, muscle strength declines 15% each decade
- endurance declines less rapidly
- people get shorter
- menopause in women
- andropause in men

- decline in visual and auditory systems
> especially common in males later
- decline in other senses
> not as rapid
- Parkinson's
> loss of dopamine producing cells
> causes motor and psychological symptoms
- dementia
> memory loss and decline in problem solving ability
- Alzheimer's
> subtype of dementia
- sleep deprivation

12

The ageing brain

- reduction in plasticity
- loss of neuronal connections
- slow brain shrinkage (2% per decade)
> not all areas of the brain deteriorate at the same speed
> not all people equally effected
- ageing well is predicted by both genetic and lifestyle factors

13

Memory and Intelligence

- fluid intelligence declines with time
- crystallised intelligence remains and may increase with age

14

Theory of Mind and Ageing

- slightly impaired in elderly
> the extend of impairment depends on how ToM is measured
- independent of general cognitive decline in stacks using visual stimuli (RMET)
- verbal theory of mind tasks correlate with impaired executive functioning and processing speeds

15

Explaining age-related cognitive change

Brain Reserve Hypothesis
- social and cognitive stimulation can help build up reserves of ability and thereby protect against the negative effects on cognitive function in the aged

Study:
- population based sample in Finland
- testing the risk of Alzheimers
- longitudinal study, assessed around 50 and 70
- assessed marital status, cognitive functioning and blood sample
> to test whether they were carriers of the ApoEe4 gene
+ increased risk in Alzheimers

Results:
- showed that those with ApoEe4 gene had a higher risk of Alzheimers
- within the group that had the ApoEe4 gene, those who had been widowed or divorced in both mid-life and later life were at a much higher risk of Alzheimers
> showing there is a social as well as genetic risk of developing Alzheimers
+ Social-Genetic Model
> may be that social interactions help protect against cognitive impairment
> this result was not found in those that had not married or cohabited, showing that it is specifically the loss of a partner that increases risk the most



16

Dealing with Cognitive Ageing

2 components can help
Optimisation
- selecting a goal and practicing that particular skill
- resulting in specialised expertise

Compensation
- changing behaviour to make up for losses in cognitive ability
> use a shopping list to go shopping to compensate for memory loss (loss of skill)

17

Types of Ageing

Successful Ageing
- thriving for a long time
Pathological Ageing
- sharp decline around the mid 60s

Successful Ageing
- maintain good physical health
- retain cognitive abilities
- retain engagement with social and productive activities
> use it or lose it

Study:
- French study of elderly, self-employed shopkeepers and craft workers
Results:
- those that opted for a later retirement age had a reduced risk of dementia
- but you cannot exclude reverse causation explanation
> people retired earlier because they were feeling the consequences of ageing already

18

Personality and Ageing

General trends
- increase in agreeability
- increase in conscientiousness beginning at 20
> related to entering the workforce
- increase in openness to experience
> large jump in teenage years, more risk taking
+ could be due to an immature frontal cortex, but a mature striatum

- people's relative position within cohorts is relatively stable

- generally people become happier with age
> could be due to Positivity Bias
> tend to think more positively about the world, mind less, as you age

Test:
- shown a series of pictures, some positive events, some neutral and some negative
Results:
- younger people had better recall overall
- those at a later age are less likely to remember the negative events
> amygdala (emotions) shows markedly less activation in response to negative stimuli than positive stimuli in older adults
> amygdala shows similar activity for positive and negative results

19

Psychodynamic Approach to Stages of Life

Erikson's 8 Stages
- each stage is defined by a different psychosocial conflict
- related to particular ages and relationships (culturally and contextually)

(stage)
(most important relationship)
(psychological conflict)
Stages:

Infancy (0-1.5)
- primary caregiver
- trust vs mistrust
> parent responding to infant's needs develops trust

Toddler (1.5-3)
- parents
- autonomy vs shame/doubt
> exploring vs restriction

Preschool (3-6)
- family
- initiative vs guilt
> too much restraint causes guilt

Childhood (6-12)
- neighbourhood/school
- industry vs inferiority
> goal-related tasks help develop this

Adolescence (12-18)
- peer group
- identity vs role confusion
> introspective personal development

Young Adulthood (18-30)
- partners and friends
- intimacy vs isolation


Middle Age (30-50)
- family and coworkers
- generativity vs stagnation
> in relation to family

Later Adulthood (50+)
- mankind (reflection)
- integrity vs despair





20

Levinson's Life Structures

Life Structure
- underpinning pattern of an adults life at a particular point in time

4 Structures
- Pre-Adulthood
- Early Adulthood
> initial choice of love and lifestyle are important
- Middle Adulthood
> settling down in career and family
> reevaluating life, could be related to feelings of uncertainty
+ mid-life crisis
- Late Adulthood
> reflection on successes and failures
+ ideally acceptance


21

Early Social Interactions

Babies
- not able to develop full friendships
- are sensitive to emotional states
- can have simple social interactions

Preschoolers
- sharing
- pretend play

Primary School
- larger peer group
- less supervision
- increase in an interest in playing with same-sex friends
- pretend play peaks at 6y, then declines
- increase in verbal and physical aggression

Adolescence
- peer interactions predominate social interactions
- increase in cross-sex interactions

22

Early Childhood conflict

Young Children about 2y
- tend to argue about things

Older Children
- tend to argue about ideas
> older children are better at resolving conflicts themselves

23

Levels of affiliation

- Social Interactions
- form relationships (friendships)
- relationships form larger social groups and communities

24

What is a friendship and when does it develop?

Friendship = an ongoing reciprocal positive relationship
- first develops in toddlers, as they start sharing

25

3 stages of childhood friendship development

Ages 7-9
- reward-cost Stage
> expect friends to offer help, share common activities and ideas

Ages 10-11
- Normative Stage
> expect friends to express similar values and attitudes
> develop the idea of loyalty and commitment

Ages 12-13 (adolescence)
- Empathic Stage
> really expect loyalty and commitment
> expect that they engage in self-disclosure
+ share secrets and keep secrets
> start to feel more jealousy of friends
> develop strong expectations of their friends

26

Imaginary Companions

- relatively common
- slightly more common in girls (barely)
- usually associated with positive outcomes of cognitive development

27

When do romantic relationships start and what are the factors for partner choosing?

- starts in Adolescence
- tend to initially be full of conflict
> short but intense

Maturation between 15-17
- older adolescents tend to have longer relationships with deeper bonds and more compromise

- no association with sexual development
- more likely associated with culture

Choosing adolescent romantic partners:
- significant correlations between:
> peer rated popularity
> peer rated body appeal
> peer rated physical attractiveness
> self rated depressive symptoms
- so people who are similar tend to go together
> peer rated sadness is not a significant correlation

28

Cliques and Crowds

Cliques
- develop in late primary school
- stable groups of peers where people tend to stay together
- actively exclude others
- generally quite small
- normally one sex

Crowds
- develop in secondary school (cliques disappear)
- more often mixed gender
- groups are bigger and live longer (more stable)
- defined by shared values or favoured activities

29

Define Sociometry

- studying how peers interact with one another
- one way of doing this is to assess the psychometric status using a peer-nomination technique
> ask everyone in a class 3 kids you like the most, 3 that you dislike the most

30

Sociometric Types

Popular
- liked by many, disliked by few
- physically attractive
- friendly, assertive but not aggressive

Rejected
- high number of dislikes
> non-aggressive rejected children
+ tend to have emotional problems (anxiety/depression)
> aggressive rejected children
+ tend to have behavioural problems (aggressive, poor self-control)
- tend to have a hostile attribution bias
> interpret approaches as hostile

Neglected
- not liked or disliked
- tend to be shy, withdrawn
- not associated with any negative outcomes

Controversial
- liked by many, disliked by many
- not a very stable category
- can be popular

Average
- all other kids

*rejected and popular groups tend to be the most stable

31

Peer interactions
0-2
2-5
5-11
11+

0-2
- not really social
- don't share
- may have joint arousal
- don't really have friendships
- don't really operate in groups

2-5
- patterns of play become more elaborate
- increase in sharing and pretend play
- start to purposely pick friends
- some dominant hierarchy, but kids are unaware of their position (not fully developed sense of conceptual self)

5-11
- large increase in social interactions
- development of friendships
- increase in verbal aggression, gossip and bullying
- later on, development of cliques
> more social comparison

11+
- peer interactions take over social interactions
- decreased importance in cliques
- increased importance in crowds
- more interaction with the other gender

32

The Three-link social influence

- your friend's friend's friend
> people up to this level will influence your social category
> fourth link influence is negligible

33

What age do children prefer peers to adults?

from 2.5y

34

Study on behaviour imitation from parents vs peers

Study:
- using twin and family designs (done mainly in terms of substance abuse

Results:
- in twins aged 12-30
- regularly drinking parents is associated with a higher risk of regular drinking in the child
- alcohol use of the co-twin was strongly related to alcohol use of the participant
- alcohol use of non-twin siblings is relatively unimportant
- friends' alcohol use is associated with the individual
- associations diminished in longitudinal analysis


Results:
- younger group of twins (12-15)
- early initiation of alcohol use is strongly genetic
- frequency of drinking is strongly related to shared environmental factors

- Many other studies find a moderate heritability of alcohol initiation
- environment might be the more influential factor

35

3 Broad stages of adulthood

- Early Adulthood (18-40)
- Middle Adulthood (40-60)
- Late Adulthood (60+)

36

Changes in ageing

Physical changes in ageing
- physical decline from mid-20s
- strength declines rapidly
> from 45, muscle strength declines 15% each decade
- endurance declines less rapidly
- people get shorter
- menopause in women
- andropause in men

- decline in visual and auditory systems
> especially common in males later
- decline in other senses
> not as rapid
- Parkinson's
> loss of dopamine producing cells
> causes motor and psychological symptoms
- dementia
> memory loss and decline in problem solving ability
- Alzheimer's
> subtype of dementia
- sleep deprivation

37

What happens to the brain with age?

- reduction in plasticity
- loss of neuronal connections
- slow brain shrinkage (2% per decade)
> not all areas of the brain deteriorate at the same speed
> not all people equally effected
- ageing well is predicted by both genetic and lifestyle factors

38

Memory and intelligence with ageing

- fluid intelligence declines with time
- crystallised intelligence remains and may increase with age

39

Crystallised intelligence

acquired knowledge and skills relating to specific information

40

Fluid Intelligence

Fluid intelligence is the general ability to think abstractly, reason, identify patterns, solve problems, and discern relationships.

41

Theory of Mind and ageing

- slightly impaired in elderly
> the extend of impairment depends on how ToM is measured
- independent of general cognitive decline in stacks using visual stimuli (RMET)
- verbal theory of mind tasks correlate with impaired executive functioning and processing speeds

42

Brain Reserve Hypothesis

- social and cognitive stimulation can help build up reserves of ability and thereby protect against the negative effects on cognitive function in the aged

43

Study on the brain reserve hypothesis

Results:
- showed that those with ApoEe4 gene had a higher risk of Alzheimers
- within the group that had the ApoEe4 gene, those who had been widowed or divorced in both mid-life and later life were at a much higher risk of Alzheimers
> showing there is a social as well as genetic risk of developing Alzheimers
+ Social-Genetic Model
> may be that social interactions help protect against cognitive impairment
> this result was not found in those that had not married or cohabited, showing that it is specifically the loss of a partner that increases risk the most



Study:
- population based sample in Finland
- testing the risk of Alzheimers
- longitudinal study, assessed around 50 and 70
- assessed marital status, cognitive functioning and blood sample
> to test whether they were carriers of the ApoEe4 gene
+ increased risk in Alzheimers

44

2 components that can help deal with cognitive ageing
Optimisation
Compensation

Optimisation
- selecting a goal and practicing that particular skill
- resulting in specialised expertise

Compensation
- changing behaviour to make up for losses in cognitive ability
> use a shopping list to go shopping to compensate for memory loss (loss of skill)

45

2 types of ageing

Successful Ageing
- thriving for a long time

Pathological Ageing
- sharp decline around the mid 60s

46

French study on successful ageing

Results:
- those that opted for a later retirement age had a reduced risk of dementia
- but you cannot exclude reverse causation explanation
> people retired earlier because they were feeling the consequences of ageing already

Study:
- French study of elderly, self-employed shopkeepers and craft workers

47

Personality and ageing

General trends
- increase in agreeability

- increase in conscientiousness beginning at 20
> related to entering the workforce

- increase in openness to experience
> large jump in teenage years, more risk taking
+ could be due to an immature frontal cortex, but a mature striatum

- people's relative position within cohorts is relatively stable

- generally people become happier with age
> could be due to Positivity Bias
> tend to think more positively about the world, mind less, as you age

48

Test of ageing and personality

Results:
- younger people had better recall overall
- those at a later age are less likely to remember the negative events
> amygdala (emotions) shows markedly less activation in response to negative stimuli than positive stimuli in older adults
> amygdala shows similar activity for positive and negative results

Test:
- shown a series of pictures, some positive events, some neutral and some negative

49

Erikson's 8 stages of life
(psychodynamic approach)
- infancy
- toddler
- preschool
- childhood
- adolescence
- young adulthood
- middle age
- later adulthood

- each stage is defined by a different psychosocial conflict
- related to particular ages and relationships (culturally and contextually)

(stage)
(most important relationship)
(psychological conflict)
Stages:

Infancy (0-1.5)
- primary caregiver
- trust vs mistrust
> parent responding to infant's needs develops trust

Toddler (1.5-3)
- parents
- autonomy vs shame/doubt
> exploring vs restriction

Preschool (3-6)
- family
- initiative vs guilt
> too much restraint causes guilt

Childhood (6-12)
- neighbourhood/school
- industry vs inferiority
> goal-related tasks help develop this

Adolescence (12-18)
- peer group
- identity vs role confusion
> introspective personal development

Young Adulthood (18-30)
- partners and friends
- intimacy vs isolation


Middle Age (30-50)
- family and coworkers
- generativity vs stagnation
> in relation to family

Later Adulthood (50+)
- mankind (reflection)
- integrity vs despair



50

Levinson's 4 life structures

Life Structure
- underpinning pattern of an adults life at a particular point in time

4 Structures
- Pre-Adulthood

- Early Adulthood
> initial choice of love and lifestyle are important

- Middle Adulthood
> settling down in career and family
> reevaluating life, could be related to feelings of uncertainty
+ mid-life crisis

- Late Adulthood
> reflection on successes and failures
+ ideally acceptance