9 - Parenting and the Family Flashcards Preview

Developmental > 9 - Parenting and the Family > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9 - Parenting and the Family Deck (49):

7 components of parenting


- showing warmth, responding to needs

- explaining and providing appropriate punishment

- asking teaching questions

- age appropriateness

- what materials are provided by the parent to support the child's play

- awareness of where the child is and what they're doing

- routines, planning for the future


2 primary dimensions of parental behaviour

Emotionality (warmth)
- responsive and child-centred
> or rejecting, uninvolved

- being demanding, restricting their behaviour
> or being permissive and undemanding


4 parenting styles

- high control, high warmth

- high control, low warmth

- low control, high warmth

- low control, low warmth


Which parenting style has the worst outcome in certain contexts?



Which parenting style has the best outcome in most contexts?



Which parenting style has poor outcomes in most contexts?




> don't rely on discussion
> harsh
> children tend to be more dependent
> public yelling / spanking



> don't often discipline their children
> like to meet the children's needs
> children seem to be less mature and less independent
> more likely to have high self-esteem, but also behavioural problems



> set guidelines but flexible
> positive feedback instead of punishment
> child tends to do well
> child encouraged to be autonomous but are given rules



> don't interact much with their child
> occurs sometimes when the parent has their own problems
> children tend to be susceptible to peer pressure


Limitations of the Parenting Style Approach

- does not take into account the impact on the parents
> child's temperament and behaviours
> physical and social neighbourhood
> cultural practices


Parenting and socioeconomic group

- in low socioeconomic groups, there is higher frequency of forbidding language
> also less positive feedback
- because parenting is adapted to the contextual environment, i.e. a bad neighbourhood


Ecological Systems approach to parenting

- interpreting parenting style in the light of cultural and contextual factors
> i.e. socio-economic status and cultural values

- family seen as an ecosystem, where each element interacts (interdependent system)
> child affects family members and vice versions


Ecological Systems view on families

> tend to attain homeostasis
+ an optimal paradigm of functioning for the kid
> have boundaries but are adaptable
> use routines
> well functioning

- Parents' socialisation of the children
> conscious and systematic socialisation with them, beginning at birth
> social roles reinforced by modelling
> promotes child's social life and activities


School Readiness

- is a child emotionally, cognitively and behaviourally ready to engage in a school environment in an optimal fashion
> biggest predictor of adult success


Ecological Systems perspective on family development

- Development is the relationship between people and their environments
> cannot evaluate a child's development only in the immediate environment

- instability and unpredictability in modern family life is the most destructive force in a child's development
> children that move a lot or have parents who act unpredictably tend to have persistent adjustment problems
> children without strong primary relationships will find affirmation in inappropriate places, particularly in adolescence


Four layers of relationships that influence a child's development

- Microsystem
- Mesosystem
- Exosystem
- Macrosystem

- Variables that the child is directly exposed to
> relationships: family, school, neighbours, religious institutions
+ family is the most influential
> environment
> child's body
+ general health
+ brain functioning, physiological and psychological
+ emotions and Cognitive systems

- most of the child's behaviour is learned here
- consists of bidirectional influences
> parents actively shape the development of the child
> child actively shapes their own environment
+ we self-select into environments that suit our genotype

- interconnections between the elements of the microsystem
> interactions between family and teachers
> relationship between child's peers and family

- Institutions of society that directly affect a child's development
> parent's workplace
> quality of school
> neighbourhood
- impacts a child's development by influencing structures in the microsystem

- Cultural Context
- provides values and customs within a culture
> influences parenting style, and teachers
> may be conscious or unconscious
- influences societal values and legislation provided by a society to help families function
- influences the interactions of all other layers (micro/meso/eco)


Direct and indirect effects of parental conflict for the child

> direct = child witnesses argument
> indirect = parents change their behaviours as a result of the argument

- sometimes highly conflictual parents can use the child in the argument
> can be very detrimental to the child, and is poor modelling or behaviour and conflict management


Effects of parental conflict on different sexes

- boys are more affected by family disharmony than girls

- boys are more likely exposed to parental arguments

- children can also impact parental relationships if they are Temperamentally difficult


Child effect on parenting style

> child traits encourage a particular parenting style
> less cooperative children encourage an authoritarian style


Effect of feedback loops on parenting style

> bidirectional relationships
- can be negative or positive loop


Interactionist view on parenting

- biological predisposition is correlated with parenting


Patterson's Coercive Model of parenting

- Caregiver negative control can impact child non-compliance
- Child non-compliance can influence caregiver negative control

Negative Cycle
- cycles may begin when a child reacts with anger or resistance to a caregivers request
- can evoke anger from the caregiver
- often intensifies, and this coercive cycle can escalate

- children learn a pattern of relating within the family that could carry over to interactions outside the family such as peers and teachers
> when coercive interactions dominate within the family, child conduct problems can stabilise throughout development and can generalise to other contexts


Effect of maternal hormone levels on the child's gender role

Hormonal levels in the mother during pregnancy can have effects on the gender role and identity developed in a child
- i.e. higher levels of testosterone associates with wanting to play with boy-oriented toys


Birth Order Effects:
Resource Theory
Confluence Theory
Interactionist View
Sibling Differentiation
Stereotype Thread Effect

Birth Order Effect:
- the order of child birth is associated with declining intelligence

- Resource Theory
> the larger the family, the fewer the resources go into each child

- Confluence Theory
> in larger families, the intellectual climate drops because the first-born is exposed to a primarily adult-centred discourse (different intellectual environment)
> later children are exposed to both child and adult centred discourse

- Interactionist View
> other factors like socioeconomic factors will modulate the order effect
+ resource theory becomes more pronounced when there's fewer resources

Sibling Differentiation
- Younger siblings may attempt Sibling Differentiation

- Stereotype Thread Effect
> people perform in intelligence tests in ways influenced by their self perception (of intelligence)


Characteristics of the Birth order effect (stereotypes)

- First Born
> most likely to take a leadership position
> orderly idea of how the world works
> sensitivity to being 'dethroned' by younger siblings

- Youngest Child
> may feel less capable, and a bit pampered by parents
> may develop manipulative skills

- Middle Child
> feels rejected
> may develop particularly good social skills to prevent being ignored

- Only Child
> advantage of full attention
> constant scrutiny and control


Effect of Siblings on Theory of Mind

- children with siblings have more advanced theories of mind early on
- this effect evens out later


Sibling Conflict and Parental Expectations

Sibling Conflict
- new child born, older sibling tends to act jealous
- siblings with high levels of conflict can amplify each others hostility which can reduce social skills outside of the house
- adoption studies show children benefit from being raised separately from their siblings if there is pronounced sibling conflict

Parental Expectations
- older siblings shape parental expectations for younger children


Moderating Sibling Conflicts test

- siblings showed better conflict resolution skills
- less negativity in conflict
- nuanced assessment of blame
- greater ability of theory of mind

- parents were trained to use formal mediation procedures to help them intervene in sibling conflicts
- mediation / control groups


Effect of Family Structure on Child Development
- Single Parent
- Same-sex Parents
- Divorce
- Changing Family
- Marital Transitions

Single Parent
- associated with worse outcomes (not necessarily causal)

Same-sex Parents
- no negative outcomes documented

- 40% of children experience divorce
> cultural influence
+ some cultures are more allowed to divorce

Changing Family
- divorce and single-parent household
> negative effects of divorce
+ stress
+ custodial mother's role as a single adult
+ children's adjustment to divorce
> positive effects
+ children become happier if they were exposed to distress within the marriage

Marital Transitions
- children in remarried families
> resistance to stepparents
> can be positive and negative influences


Child Abuse

- most common in young children, under 3y
- perpetuated more often by females, except sexual abuse which is more likely perpetuated by the father


Cycles of Abuse

- violence begets violence
> abused children show higher levels of abuse to their own children
+ this is not necessarily a true rule


4 acts of Child Maltreatment

- Physical Abuse
- Emotional Abuse
- Sexual Abuse
- Neglect


Emotional Abuse

- failure to provide developmentally appropriate environment
- child fails to establish a full range of emotional and social competencies


Sexual Abuse

- involvement of a child in sexual activity that they do not fully comprehend or is not able to give consent to, and violates the laws of the society



- failure to provide for a child in all domains
> physical and mental health
> education
> nutrition, shelter


Patterns seen in families across all maltreatment types

> environment of coercion and abuse of power
> lower levels of prosocial behaviour and verbal communication
> undervaluing of children
> deviant affective displays
> maternal intrusiveness and non-responsiveness


Cognitive Adaptations to maltreatment
- defensiveness
- hypervigilance
- dissociation

- defensive structure in relation to trauma (PTSD)
> hyper vigilance, cognitive distortions

- Hypervigilance = constant scanning of environment and development of ability to detect subtle variations in it
> can be transposed to others (trauma attachments)

- Dissociation
> altered level of self-awareness in an effort to escape an upsetting feeling
+ psychological escape


Social and emotional adjustments to maltreatment

- maltreated children often suffer from low self-esteem, self-blame, negative affect towards self

- greater risk of peer rejection
> longer maltreatment occurs, the greater the likelihood of rejection
> maybe because of a tendency to engage in coercive aggressive interactions with peers as a result of abuse and poor modelling


Emotion regulation in maltreated children

- ability to modify, redirect and control emotions

- maltreated children engage in efforts to avoid control or suppress emotion

- modulation difficulties
> extreme depressive reactions and intense angry outbursts

- internalising behaviour problems
> anxiety and depression


Effect of Physical abuse on child's appraisals of others

- Physically abused children tend to be inaccurate in their appraisals of others
> see anger more often in ambiguous scenarios


Child maltreatment and risky behaviours

- increased likelihood to engage in a greater array of risky behaviours

- certain types of maltreatment are associated with a greater number of sexual partners and heavier alcohol consumption

- adult survivors of traumatic abuse are likely to engage in substance abuse, criminal and antisocial disorders, and eating disorders


Child maltreatment and peer rejection

- chronic maltreatment is associated with higher levels of aggressive behaviour (modelling, gene-environment correlations)

- social withdraw is associated with peer rejection


At what age do babies become responsive to their peers?

6 months


Relational Victimisation

> attempt by a peer to control or damage a child's relationship with other
+ talking behind someones back / social media


Consequences of peer rejection

- children report feeling lonelier
- poor achievement in school
- school avoidance
- higher risk of depression when older
- higher risk of being bullied when older
- peer status can change


Long-term effects of child maltreatment

- many children become well-functioning adults
- some suffer serious psychological distress

- maltreating parents may fail to produce opportunities for positive social interaction for their children
- children who experienced a lack of parental supervision were less likely to be accepted by peers
> tendency to engage in unskilled or aggressive behaviour


Development of Frienship

- reciprocity and commitment
- young children view obligations very importantly

- females of all ages are more likely to be concerned with
> emotional resistance
> stressing reasons to benefit others

Developmental patterns of friendship
- 3-7: goal of peer interaction is play

- 8-12: acceptance by same-gender peers

- 13-17: goal of understanding the self
> negative gossip is most salient social process
> gossip is often a way of settling group norms


Possible buffers to maltreatment

- best friends are likely to increase self esteem and act as a positive role model