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Flashcards in 4 - Developmental Stages Deck (26):
1

Cognition, Implicit and Explicit

Cognition
- the capacity to think, reason and use knowledge about the world

Explicit cognition
- cognition that you are aware of (can describe in words, literal things)

Implicit cognition
- knowledge you may not be able to describe in words (intuitions, inferences we can make about the world

2

Piaget's view on cognitive development

Cognitive Development based on modifying one's Schemata, adapting it to one's needs

- noticed common mistakes among age groups
> and differences between age groups

Piaget's main tenet:
- the child actively seeks knowledge
> Constructionist View:
> children construct their own understanding, trying to fit new information into what they already know
- systematic changes in children's thinking occurs at certain ages

3

Piaget's theory on Cognitive Organisation

- child's knowledge gets organised into increasingly more complex structures

- Schema
> child's knowledge, representations and ways of interacting with the world

- Adaptation
> Assimilation
+ interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemes
> Accommodation
+ altering schemes in response to new experiences
> Equilibration
+ assimilation and accommodation working together

4

What is a Schema?

An individual's knowledge, representations and ways of interpreting the world and interacting with it

5

What is Cognitive Adaptation?

(Piaget)
The process by which an individual's cognitive ability develops

3 Processes:
- Assimilation
> interpreting new experiences in terms of existing Schemes

- Accomodation
> altering existing schemes in response to new experiences (if they do not fit the schema)

- Equilibriation
> the combination of Assimilation and Accommodation working together

6

Piaget's Model of Cognitive Development and the 4 Stages

First detailed model of development ever made
- stresses Domain-Generality (concepts develop by elaborating and integrating schemes {qualitative stage theorist})


- Sensorimotor Period (0-2)
> infants distinguish their own bodies and actions from the external world

- Pre-operational Period (2-7)
> can use symbols to mentally represent objects, can't see quasi-logical relations

- Concrete Operational Period (7-12)
> can apply quasi logical operations, can't think abstractly

- Formal Operational Period (12+)
> can think logically about hypothetical and abstract ideas

7

Substages of the Sensorimotor Period (6)

0-2y

Reflexes (0-1m)
- reflexes become more efficient (i.e. sucking)
- no awareness of objects in the world
- no ability to integrate information from different senses

Primary Circular Reactions (1-4m)
- PCR = discovers by chance that they can interact with an object using reflexes
- will then reproduce the action and improve at it
- no object permanence

Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8m)
- SCR = applying new schemes to external objects
- still happens by chance but now related to objects
- some level of object permanence

Integration (8-12m)
- integration of secondary schemes
- more complete understanding of an object and how they can interact with it
- shows A-not-B error

Tertiary Circular Reacitons (12-18m)
- TCR = applying schemes intentionally
- begin to understand objects exist independent of schemes
- succeeds at A-not-B error
- fails at invisible displacement

Stage 6 (18-24m)
- flexible use of schemes
- fully developed object permanence
> passes the invisible displacement task
- begins to use language

8

Testing the accuracy of Piaget's Sensorimotor stage (2)

A-not-B error
- Piaget believed this showed that children do not represent the hidden object appropriately
- in fact:
> if the cover is transparent, children still make the mistake, indicating it is not an error of the object being hidden
> children still tend to look at the correct cover, even when reaching for the incorrect one (reaching error)
+ patterns of looking behaviour may be a better way of measuring A-not-B behaviours


Baillargeon's Results:
- children as young as 3.5m show object permanence
- found this via Expectations Violation
> familiarising the baby with a process, then introducing something that would prevent the process (i.e. blockade), but (unseen to the baby) removing it to allow the process, then reinstating it to show it is still there
+ caused the infants to stare longer at the problem, indicating they were confused, or had realised the problem was complex, indicating object permanence

9

Substages of the Pre-Operational Period (2)

Pre-conceptual substage (2-4y)
> imaginative play
> animistic thinking (attribute life to inanimate objects, difficult differentiating live and inanimate objects)
> Egocentric thinking (inability to de-centre from their own perception)
+ tested by the three mountain task

- Intuitive substage (4-7y)
> children can solve problems but can't explain how
> difficulty with part-whole relations (class inclusion)
+ differentiation between an item within it's class i.e. dogs within animals

10

Thinking in the Pre-operational Period

* Development of Symbolic thinking (facilitates use of language)


Pre-operational thought:
> child is semi-logical, conservation skills not yet complete (child understands quality (shape) but not quantity (volume) if an object)
> reversibility not understood
- poor Transitive inferences
> ability to remember information to help solve a problem

11

Concrete Operational Stage (1)

7-12y
- child is able to reason logically about physically present objects
> able to de-centre
> increased understanding of reversibility
> ability to classify increases
> cultural differences in this

12

Formal Operational Stage (1)

12y+
- children able to engage in abstract, complex reasoning and hypothesis testing
> not all thinking confined to reality
> not all people in all cultures reach the Formal Operations stage (stage is strongly tied to cultural influences)

13

Piaget's view on the importance of object permanence

- object permanence has implications for development of self-recognition

14

Piaget's view on the importance of self-distinction

- self distinction from others is central to development of social cognition

15

Piaget's view on the importance of egocentrism

- decreased egocentrism allows role-taking
> also may improve communication and empathy

16

Criticisms of Piaget's Contructionist Theory

- he may have underestimated
> timing and onset of cognitive abilities
> influence of culture and social experiences
> contributions of emotions to development
> changes may not occur in orderly stages
> cognitive development can be accelerated through training

17

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

- addressed the critical nature of the Zone of Proximal Development
- cognitive development is largely influenced by environment
- mediators (language, counting, writing) are critical psychological tools for learning success
> child learns to use many types, develops competency

Cognitive development is:
- a transition from elementary mental functions (biological)
- to higher mental functions

Role of Language:
- a cultural product that mediates cognitive functioning
- Egocentric speech (private speech)
..becomes..
- Inner speech (internal and silent speech)

18

How the Zone of Proximal Development works

- the difference between actual developmental level and potential development
- social interactions allow a framework for learning (scaffolding)

19

The impact of Zygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

Considerable impact on psychology and education
- Scaffolding
> form of instruction based on ZPD, a teacher adjusts learning support to meet learning needs of individual students (requires interaction)
- Reciprocal Instruction
> tutoring approach based on interaction between child and tutor
- Community of learners
> shared activities promote learning and relationships
- Guided Participation
> 'directed' support

20

What is Scaffolding?

> form of instruction based on ZPD, a teacher adjusts learning support to meet learning needs of individual students (requires interaction)

21

What is Reciprocal Instruction?

> tutoring approach based on interaction between child and tutor

22

The idea of a Community of Learners

> shared activities promote learning and relationships

23

Evaluation of Zygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of cognitive development

- it created more awareness
> stressed the importance of immediate social contexts
> stressed the importance of culture and ethnic traditions
> emphasised micro genetic change over time

- did not look at:
> Ontogenetic change (age-related)
> influence of sociocultural experiences on development of social cognition
> parenting style and siblings influence cross-culturally
+ sibling ages
> variation

24

What are; Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Circular Reactions?

Primary Circular Reaction
- infant discovers by chance, via reflexes, that they can interact with an object
> they repeat this action
- essentially the development of a scheme

Secondary Circular Reaction
- application of schemes to external objects
- still occurs at random

Tertiary Circular Reaction
- intentional application of schemes to objects

25

A-not-B test

Two cloths
- repeatedly put an object under cloth A
- the child will indicate that it is under cloth A to find it
- show the child that you're now putting the item under cloth B
- see which one they reach for

26

Invisible displacement test

Move an object from a place the infant associates with it, to a new place (hide it)
- if the child looks around new places for the object, they are showing fully developed object permanence
- infants pass this in the 6th stage of the Sensorimotor Period (18-24m)