4 - Developmental Stages Flashcards Preview

Developmental > 4 - Developmental Stages > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4 - Developmental Stages Deck (26):

Cognition, Implicit and Explicit

- the capacity to think, reason and use knowledge about the world

Explicit cognition
- cognition that you are aware of (can describe in words, literal things)

Implicit cognition
- knowledge you may not be able to describe in words (intuitions, inferences we can make about the world


Piaget's view on cognitive development

Cognitive Development based on modifying one's Schemata, adapting it to one's needs

- noticed common mistakes among age groups
> and differences between age groups

Piaget's main tenet:
- the child actively seeks knowledge
> Constructionist View:
> children construct their own understanding, trying to fit new information into what they already know
- systematic changes in children's thinking occurs at certain ages


Piaget's theory on Cognitive Organisation

- child's knowledge gets organised into increasingly more complex structures

- Schema
> child's knowledge, representations and ways of interacting with the world

- Adaptation
> Assimilation
+ interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemes
> Accommodation
+ altering schemes in response to new experiences
> Equilibration
+ assimilation and accommodation working together


What is a Schema?

An individual's knowledge, representations and ways of interpreting the world and interacting with it


What is Cognitive Adaptation?

The process by which an individual's cognitive ability develops

3 Processes:
- Assimilation
> interpreting new experiences in terms of existing Schemes

- Accomodation
> altering existing schemes in response to new experiences (if they do not fit the schema)

- Equilibriation
> the combination of Assimilation and Accommodation working together


Piaget's Model of Cognitive Development and the 4 Stages

First detailed model of development ever made
- stresses Domain-Generality (concepts develop by elaborating and integrating schemes {qualitative stage theorist})

- Sensorimotor Period (0-2)
> infants distinguish their own bodies and actions from the external world

- Pre-operational Period (2-7)
> can use symbols to mentally represent objects, can't see quasi-logical relations

- Concrete Operational Period (7-12)
> can apply quasi logical operations, can't think abstractly

- Formal Operational Period (12+)
> can think logically about hypothetical and abstract ideas


Substages of the Sensorimotor Period (6)


Reflexes (0-1m)
- reflexes become more efficient (i.e. sucking)
- no awareness of objects in the world
- no ability to integrate information from different senses

Primary Circular Reactions (1-4m)
- PCR = discovers by chance that they can interact with an object using reflexes
- will then reproduce the action and improve at it
- no object permanence

Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8m)
- SCR = applying new schemes to external objects
- still happens by chance but now related to objects
- some level of object permanence

Integration (8-12m)
- integration of secondary schemes
- more complete understanding of an object and how they can interact with it
- shows A-not-B error

Tertiary Circular Reacitons (12-18m)
- TCR = applying schemes intentionally
- begin to understand objects exist independent of schemes
- succeeds at A-not-B error
- fails at invisible displacement

Stage 6 (18-24m)
- flexible use of schemes
- fully developed object permanence
> passes the invisible displacement task
- begins to use language


Testing the accuracy of Piaget's Sensorimotor stage (2)

A-not-B error
- Piaget believed this showed that children do not represent the hidden object appropriately
- in fact:
> if the cover is transparent, children still make the mistake, indicating it is not an error of the object being hidden
> children still tend to look at the correct cover, even when reaching for the incorrect one (reaching error)
+ patterns of looking behaviour may be a better way of measuring A-not-B behaviours

Baillargeon's Results:
- children as young as 3.5m show object permanence
- found this via Expectations Violation
> familiarising the baby with a process, then introducing something that would prevent the process (i.e. blockade), but (unseen to the baby) removing it to allow the process, then reinstating it to show it is still there
+ caused the infants to stare longer at the problem, indicating they were confused, or had realised the problem was complex, indicating object permanence


Substages of the Pre-Operational Period (2)

Pre-conceptual substage (2-4y)
> imaginative play
> animistic thinking (attribute life to inanimate objects, difficult differentiating live and inanimate objects)
> Egocentric thinking (inability to de-centre from their own perception)
+ tested by the three mountain task

- Intuitive substage (4-7y)
> children can solve problems but can't explain how
> difficulty with part-whole relations (class inclusion)
+ differentiation between an item within it's class i.e. dogs within animals


Thinking in the Pre-operational Period

* Development of Symbolic thinking (facilitates use of language)

Pre-operational thought:
> child is semi-logical, conservation skills not yet complete (child understands quality (shape) but not quantity (volume) if an object)
> reversibility not understood
- poor Transitive inferences
> ability to remember information to help solve a problem


Concrete Operational Stage (1)

- child is able to reason logically about physically present objects
> able to de-centre
> increased understanding of reversibility
> ability to classify increases
> cultural differences in this


Formal Operational Stage (1)

- children able to engage in abstract, complex reasoning and hypothesis testing
> not all thinking confined to reality
> not all people in all cultures reach the Formal Operations stage (stage is strongly tied to cultural influences)


Piaget's view on the importance of object permanence

- object permanence has implications for development of self-recognition


Piaget's view on the importance of self-distinction

- self distinction from others is central to development of social cognition


Piaget's view on the importance of egocentrism

- decreased egocentrism allows role-taking
> also may improve communication and empathy


Criticisms of Piaget's Contructionist Theory

- he may have underestimated
> timing and onset of cognitive abilities
> influence of culture and social experiences
> contributions of emotions to development
> changes may not occur in orderly stages
> cognitive development can be accelerated through training


Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

- addressed the critical nature of the Zone of Proximal Development
- cognitive development is largely influenced by environment
- mediators (language, counting, writing) are critical psychological tools for learning success
> child learns to use many types, develops competency

Cognitive development is:
- a transition from elementary mental functions (biological)
- to higher mental functions

Role of Language:
- a cultural product that mediates cognitive functioning
- Egocentric speech (private speech)
- Inner speech (internal and silent speech)


How the Zone of Proximal Development works

- the difference between actual developmental level and potential development
- social interactions allow a framework for learning (scaffolding)


The impact of Zygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

Considerable impact on psychology and education
- Scaffolding
> form of instruction based on ZPD, a teacher adjusts learning support to meet learning needs of individual students (requires interaction)
- Reciprocal Instruction
> tutoring approach based on interaction between child and tutor
- Community of learners
> shared activities promote learning and relationships
- Guided Participation
> 'directed' support


What is Scaffolding?

> form of instruction based on ZPD, a teacher adjusts learning support to meet learning needs of individual students (requires interaction)


What is Reciprocal Instruction?

> tutoring approach based on interaction between child and tutor


The idea of a Community of Learners

> shared activities promote learning and relationships


Evaluation of Zygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of cognitive development

- it created more awareness
> stressed the importance of immediate social contexts
> stressed the importance of culture and ethnic traditions
> emphasised micro genetic change over time

- did not look at:
> Ontogenetic change (age-related)
> influence of sociocultural experiences on development of social cognition
> parenting style and siblings influence cross-culturally
+ sibling ages
> variation


What are; Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Circular Reactions?

Primary Circular Reaction
- infant discovers by chance, via reflexes, that they can interact with an object
> they repeat this action
- essentially the development of a scheme

Secondary Circular Reaction
- application of schemes to external objects
- still occurs at random

Tertiary Circular Reaction
- intentional application of schemes to objects


A-not-B test

Two cloths
- repeatedly put an object under cloth A
- the child will indicate that it is under cloth A to find it
- show the child that you're now putting the item under cloth B
- see which one they reach for


Invisible displacement test

Move an object from a place the infant associates with it, to a new place (hide it)
- if the child looks around new places for the object, they are showing fully developed object permanence
- infants pass this in the 6th stage of the Sensorimotor Period (18-24m)