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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (14):
1

Empiricism

The idea that development is primarily determined by environmental influences

2

Nativism

The idea that development is primarily determined by inherited (genetic) factors

3

Continuous Development

A pattern of development in which abilities change in a gradual and smooth way throughout life

4

Discontinuous Development

A pattern of development in which changes occur suddenly, resulting in defined periods of development that are qualitatively different

5

Critical Period

A period of development (age range) during which specific experiences are crucial for development to occur in a typical way

6

Sensitive Period

A period of development (age range) during which particular experiences are important for normal development, but this may still occur even if the experiences do not

7

Domain-General Development

The idea that development in a particular skill can impact a wide range of other abilities

8

Domain-Specific Development

The idea that development of various abilities occurs independently and has little impact on skills in other domains

9

Levels of Explanation

The extent or way in which psychological abilities and their development are described.
i.e Biological / Behavioural / Social / Emotional

10

Interactionism

The idea that several levels of explanation are necessary to explain a particular development.
i.e. Biology / Social & Cultural environment

11

Ecological Perspective

A perspective that stresses the importance of interactions between different environmental systems as well as their effects on organisms

12

Ecological Model of Development

Developed by Bronfenbrenner, the model stresses that there are different levels of a child's environment that interact with them with differing levels of direct influence.

Microsystem:
The closest environment to the child, in which they interact directly with parents / school / peers.

Mesosystem:
The interactions between the components of the Microsystem.

Exosystem:
Largely indirect influences on the child's environment.
i.e. extended family / parents work schedule / mass media

Macrosystem:
The ideological and institutional patterns or beliefs of a particular culture or subculture.

Chronosystem:
Represents that all of these systems change over time.
i.e. puberty / political change / death of a parent

13

Lifespan Perspective

The view that development is a process that continues throughout the life cycle, from infancy to old age

14

Age cohort

People born within the same generation, sharing similar histories and experiences