6 - Attachment and Emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6 - Attachment and Emotion Deck (43):
1

What are emotions?

- Subjective reactions to the environment
> transient states (context-dependent)
> correspond to distinct internal feelings

- Usually experienced cognitively

- Generally accompanied by some physiological arousal
> e.g. increased heart rate

- Communicated to others through behaviour

2

Approaches to Emotional Development (3)

Genetic-Maturational View
Learning Perspective
Functionalist Approach

3

What's the best way to measure (index) infant's emotions?

- More direct way is to look at their facial expressions
> relatively easy to measure

- Could ask mothers'
> this is subjective

4

Primary Emotions (6)

- first to develop (around 6m)
- culturally universal

- develop via Social Referencing
> children use the emotional cues of people around them to learn how to react in those situations

> fear
> joy
> disgust
> anger
> surprise
> sadness

5

Why do the 6 primary emotions emerge first?

> ontogeny mirrors phylogeny
+ the order in which emotions develop in a child, mirrors the order in which these emotions came about in evolution
+ i.e. the first emotions to come along are the most essential to survival
+ complex emotions emerge later
+ different combinations of primary emotions in different strengths give rise to the more complex emotions

6

Types of Emotions (4)

Primary emotions
- emerge within 6m

Secondary emotions
- emerge from 18m-3y

Complex emotions
- emerge as young as 2y

Machiavellian emotions

7

Secondary Emotions and cognitive milestones

18m-3y
> these involve self-awareness of one's own thoughts and feelings
> allows us to feel concern about what people think

+ embarrassment
+ envy
+ empathy


> once these have developed, these are built on by incorporating social standards/norms
> understanding that there are particular expectations, and internalising these

+ guilt
+ shame
+ pride


- Secondary emotional development occurs at the same time as the development of the amygdala
> remembering emotional and social events
- so it could be that these complex emotions require more complex neural circuitry

8

Complex Emotions and requirements (3)

- embarrassment
> requires self awareness
> as young as age 2

- guilt
> requires personal responsibility to moral standards
> somewhat culturally specific

- jealousy
> generally seen as complex but may emerge earlier
> an internal emotion, not really expressible

9

Machiavellian Emotions

> using emotional expressions to manipulate/influence people, when they aren't actually feeling these emotions

10

Recognising Emotions

- response to emotions emerges early
- idea is that their using non-verbal cues (facial expressions, tone of voice)
> 4m track emotions
> 5m are sensitive to emotions of speakers of their non-native language

- this can depend on the emotions they're exposed to
> abused children tend to recognise these negative emotions more easily than those that haven't

11

What is Negativity Bias?

- infants have a greater response to negative emotions
> less likely to play with a toy that the adult acted negatively towards
- could have survival benefits evolutionarily

12

What is Emotional Contagion?

- exposure to another person's emotions can cause us to feel that same emotion
- emerges by 6m
> could be a form of emotional imitation
> could be a result of mirror neurons

13

What is Emotional Regulation?
- Situation Modification
- Attentional Deployment
- Response Modification

Emotional Regulation
- deliberately suppressing emotions in certain situations

> Situation Modification
+ change situation to change emotion (external = mother moves baby)

> Attentional Deployment
+ change thoughts to distract and move attention away from the stressor

> Response Modification
+ change the physiological response caused by stress to reduce the emotional impact (i.e. deep breaths)

14

What are Emotional Display Rules?

Rules that dictate what emotions are appropriate at what circumstances
> can be cultural (stiff upper lip)

15

Define Temperament and Personality

Temperament
- tendency towards particular emotional and behavioural responses to specific situations
- biologically rooted
- used to describe infants

Personality
- temperament + creativity + intelligence + other factors
- used to describe older children and adults

16

What are the 3 main categories of temperament?

> emotionality
> activity level
> sociability

- all have a strong genetic component
- all are linked to specific brain circuitry or other physiological factors (HR or hormonal expression)
- all seem to be present across species

17

Study of Temperament

Results:
- classified babies as having these temperaments:
> easy (40%)
> difficult (10%)
> slow to warm up (15%)
> average (35%)
- these had some predictive power in terms of later personality

- also suggested goodness of fit between child and environment
> same environment can have different reactions for children depending on their innate temperament
- Parents' influence:
(also siblings and peers)
> reinforcement
> imitation
> emotional coaches by talking about emotions and exploring their understanding of their own and others' emotional responses


Study:
New York Longitudinal Study
- interviews with mothers about infants' routine and activity
- developed nine-dimensional scale to look at different aspects of temperament
> activity level
> approach/withdrawal
> adaptability
> mood
> responsiveness
> reactivity
> distractibility
> rhythmicity
> attention span/persistence

Results:
- classified babies as having these temperaments:
> easy (40%)
> difficult (10%)
> slow to warm up (15%)
> average (35%)
- these had some predictive power in terms of later personality

- also suggested goodness of fit between child and environment
> same environment can have different reactions for children depending on their innate temperament
- Parents' influence:
(also siblings and peers)
> reinforcement
> imitation
> emotional coaches by talking about emotions and exploring their understanding of their own and others' emotional responses

18

4 Types of Temperament in infants

> easy
> difficult
> slow to warm up
> average

- these had some predictive power in terms of later personality

19

Parental influence on temperament

> reinforcement
> imitation
> emotional coaches by talking about emotions and exploring their understanding of their own and others' emotional responses

20

Define Attachment

A strong emotional bond formed between infant and caregiver
forms 6-12m

21

Separation Anxiety

Develops at 8m

- distress caused by separation from caregivers
- indicates specific bond
- culturally universal
> as infants age, their display of separation distress changes from i.e. crawling to asking for them

22

Psychoanalytic Theory of attachment and it's limitations

- nursing is the earliest form of pleasure and gratification being satisfied (oral stage)
> this forms a bond between mother and child

+ limitation: what about fathers? (no empirical support)
- babies have different bonds based on gender and sex roles, and these persist throughout life

23

Learning theory of attachment and it's limitation

- babies have physical drives (hunger/thirst)
> when caregivers respond to these drives, the child associates the caregiver with positive reinforcement
+ forming a bond with the mother
- these biological drives guide attachment

> limitation: why does the strong bond retain when they can feed themselves?

24

Ethological Theory of attachment

- Bowlby coined the bond between parent and child 'attachment'
> infant wants to be proximal to caregiver
> focus on evolutionary role of attachment
+ instinctual behaviours ensure that they get attention (crying, sucking)
+ from this proximity, attachment develops
> distinct from dependency (reliance for sustenance)

25

Ethological Stages of Attachment (4)

Pre-attachment (0-2m)
Attachment-in-the-making (2-7m)
Clear-cut attachment (7m-2y)
Goal-corrected partnership (2y+)

26

Pre-attachment Stage

0-2m
- early instinctual attachment-related behaviours, indiscriminate direction (most cases will affect the parent)

27

Attachment-in-the-making stage

2-7m
- recognition of familiar people and prefer them
> no separation anxiety
+ so no attachment formed

28

Clear-cut Attachment stage

7m-2y
- separation anxiety
- wariness of strangers
- intentional communication

29

Goal-corrected Partnership Stage

2y+
- relationship more two-sided
> children understand parent's need
> become more independent
+ less separation anxiety

30

Components of attachment:
- Smiling
- Contingent responding
- Social Referencing
- Joint Attention

Smiling
- initially always
- then in response to external stimuli
- then at 6m, develop 'Smile of Recognition'
> largest smile due to their caregiver

Contingent responding
- mother smiles and rocks baby
- causing baby to smile more
- causing mother to smile and rock more
- etc
(positive feedback loop)
> the child expects the parent to smile when they smile
> if the parent does not smile, the child becomes easily distressed
> because infants are sensitive to contradictions of their expectation


Social Referencing
- look to others to see how to react

Joint attention
- the child *understands* that they are both interested in the object they are looking at
> do this by alternating their gaze between object and mother
- advanced version of gaze following
> child looks at what the parent is looking at

31

The Strange Situation

Testing scenario devised by Mary Ainsworth
- based attachment on the concept of the 'secure base'
> a caregiver that the child uses as a base for exploration of a safe haven when distresses

The Strange Situation
- assess the nature and quality of infant-mother relations
> the mother and child play
> a stranger enters the room, after a time the stranger tries to interact with the child
> mother leaves the room
> stranger tries to comfort the child
> mother returns and stranger leaves (reunion)
- resettling into situation
> mother leaves
> stranger returns and attempts to console child
> mother returns (second reunion)


*Researchers interested in the reunion period

32

3 types of attachment documented originally from the Strange Situation, and 2 more found later

- Secure Attachment
- Insecure-avoidant Attachment
- Insecure-Resistant Attachment

- Disorganised Attachment
- Indeterminate Attachment

33

Secure Attachment

- explore when with mother
- distressed when she leaves
- happy to see her return

> parenting indication: sensitive care (responsive to distress)

34

Insecure-avoidant attachment

- explore when with the mother
- not upset when she leaves
- avoid the mother when she returns

> parenting indication: unavailability, rejecting (child develops independence)

35

Insecure-Resistant attachment

- less likely to explore
- highly distressed when she leaves
- stay close when she returns but may act angry

> parenting indication: inconsistency available (child loses trust)

36

Disorganised attachment

- may be disoriented when reunited
- approach/avoidance behaviour
> upset when mother leaves, but may retreat when she returns

+ parenting indication: neglect or abuse (caregiver is a source of both comfort and fear)

37

Indeterminate Attachment

- child acts the same way with strangers as with caregivers

> tends to develop in orphanages

38

Do Attachment styles persist through adulthood?

Yes, but intervention can change things
- insecurely-attached infants can develop better relationship by school age (vice versa)

39

Outcome of early attachment on cognitive and social development

Cognitive Development
- higher quality parent-child relationships show better cognitive development
- greater class participation and grades

Social Development
- more positive emotions, empathy, social competence
- better quality friendships and more popularity

Stability of attachment style does not preclude change
- insecurely-attached infants can develop better relationship by school age (vice versa)
- intervention is possible

40

Limitations of the Strange Test:
- Child Effects
- Bidirectional Development
- Cultural Influences

Child Effects
- particular temperament of the child will effect the strength of the attachment bond
> children show different attachment styles with different people
- child's behaviour will influence the parent's behaviour
> constantly distressed child, parent may be less sensitive to changes
- internal working model
> child's mental representation and expectations for particular responses from parents
- parents will have their own internal working models that were passed down generationally

Bidirectional Development
(parent child interactions)
- negative feedback loop

Cultural influences on attachment
- i.e. higher proportion of children in japan showing the anxious attachment style
- strange situation will be more or less strange in different cultures
> strange situations may have limitations in detecting patterns

41

Effects of Social Deprivation in humans

- reduced exploration and motor action
- react with terror to strangers
- rocking bak and forth, biting self
- vacant stares, unawareness off environment
- 37% mortality
> compared to an orphanage with social interaction

42

Effects of social deprivation in primates

Experiment:
- put monkeys in a cage with plenty of food but no social interaction
> similar social deprivation signs were found
- added a mother figure doll that was soft
> baby monkey showed a bond to this, and would cling for long times, and run to it if they were scared (impact of physical contact)
- when faced with the choice between nourishment and food, found that the child would spend the majority of time with the tactile mother, and would only go to the other to feed
> comfort and attachment and the formation of bonds are clearly important for development

43

Is there a critical period in attachment?

- maybe
- in some cases the effects of social deprivation could be undone