How many times more likely is someone with depression to commit suicide?
20 times for unipolar
15 times for bipolar.
What is flumazenil used for?
What is added to activated charcoal for use in catharsis?
What is the treatment for overdose on β-blockers?
What are the age ranges for increased self-harm susceptibility?
When is gastric lavage considered?
When a life threatening amount of substance has been taken within 1 hour of ingestion
When is urine Alkalinisation used?
Weak acid overdose, such as aspirin.
What is used in the treatment of paracetamol overdose?
What are the 4 areas of Durkiem's theory of social integration?
- Altruistic; communality to strong sacrifice for the sake of the group.
- Fatalistic; communality control, mass cult suicide.
- Egotistic; loss of integration with the community.
- Anomie; community in upheaval.
How does an MDMA overdose present?
What are the signs of benzodiazepine, barbiturate or severe TCA overdose?
What is the most likely cause of poisoning in children?
Carbon monoxide from faulty boilers etc.
Which chronic physical illnesses are linked to increased risk of suicide?
- Chronic painful arthritis
Why is N-acetyl cysteine given for paracetamol overdose?
It is a precursor for glutathione, which is used to conjugate paracetamol metabolites.
What are the signs of salicylate overdose?
- N and V
- Tinnitus and deafness
- Metabolic acidosis
Intentional self-poisoning or self-injury, irrespective of the type of motivation or degree of suicide intent.
What are the clinical signs of opiate overdose?
- Reduced RR
When is whole bowel irrigation indicated?
Slow release drugs:
- Ca channel blockers
- Button batteries
- Body packers.
What is haemodialysis used for?
- Ethylene glycol
What is used for whole bowel irrigation?
What are the motivations for self-harm?
- Wish to blot out distressing thoughts
- Gain respect from intolerable stress
- Attempt to induce guilt, or cry for help
- Wanting to get back at somebody, or personal punishment
- True wish to die
What are the 4 main social causes of suicide?
- Social isolation
- Socioeconomic deprivation
- Life events
- Chronic difficulties
What are the clinical signs of TCA, Orphenadrine, Thioridazone and antihistamine overdose?
- Extensor plantar responses
- Sinus tachycardia
What is haemoperfusion effective for?
What are the main classes of drugs used for overdosing?
Opiates such as heroin, morphine and methadone
Analgesics such as paracetamol
- Carbon monoxide
What are some of the mental disorders that are linked with increased risk of suicide?
- Substance misuse
- Brain injuries
- Personality disorders
What are the signs of paracetamol overdose?
- N and V
- Abdominal pain
- Renal failure
Which gender and age group is poisoning most prevalent?
Females aged 15-24.
What is Ipecacuahana syrup used for?
What is activated charcoal ineffective against?
Metals; Fe, Li, Lead, Hg
- Hydrocarbons; methanol, ethylene glycol
What is naloxone used for?
What is the most common form of self-harm?
Paracetamol overdose; 41% of cases.
When is IV Lorazepam used?
To control fits caused by TCAs, Mefanamic acid or Theophylline.