10.7 Hyperkinetic disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10.7 Hyperkinetic disorders Deck (19)
1

What is a tremor

involuntary rhythmic, repetitive, oscillatory movement of body part caused by alternative contraction of agonists and antagonist muscle groups

2

What are the types of tremor

Resting: may disappear when asleep of relaxed
Postural: present when limb in certain position
Intention: present when moving body part to/from target, particularly when terminal exaggeration

3

What is an essential and dystonic tremor?

Essential: bilateral, largely symmetrical postural and kinetic tremor of hands and forearms (bimodal distribution)

Dystonic: Typically jerky, may be position and/or task specific

4

What are the causes of an intention tremor?

Cerebellar pathology, MS, midbrain pathology, functional

5

What drugs induce a rest tremor?

Dopamine antagonists
Valproate
Lithium
Amiodarone
Calcium channel blockers

6

What drugs induce an action tremor?

Beta agonists
Anticonvulsants
Thyroxine
Lithium
Tricyclic antidepressants
Caffeine
Nicotine
Amphetamines

7

What is the treatment for an essential tremor?

1st: propanolol
2nd: primidone

8

What is myoclonus?

Brief, shock like, involuntary movements caused by muscular contractions (positive myoclonus) or inhibitions (negative myoclonus, asterixis)

9

What is restless leg syndrome, genetic basis, disease associations and treatment?

Unpleasant or uncomfortable urge to move legs particularly in the evenings and is transiently relieved by movement
Autosomal dominant

Disease associations: iron deficiency, uraemia, peripheral neuropathy, pregnancy, MS, PD

Treatment: dopamine agonists

10

What is periodic limb movement disorder and what is the treatment?

Involuntary limb movements during sleep with stereotyped flexion at the hips/knees, ankle dorsiflexion and great toe extension

Movements lats about 2 seconds and occur every 20-40 seconds, occur in stage 1-2 sleep and associated with excessive daytime sleepiness
Treatment - same as restless leg syndrome

11

What are tics

Sudden, brief, intermittent repetitive movements or vocalisations which can be voluntarily suppressed

12

What is the primary cause of a tic?

Tourettes - persistent evolving motor and phonic tics, age of onset

13

What are the secondary causes of Tics?

Huntington's, Wilsons, CJD, Downs
Cocaine, amphetamines
Encephalitis, neurosyphilus, head traumas, stroke, neoplasm

14

What is the management of tics?

Education, habit reversal training, tetrabenazine, botulinium toxin

15

What is chorea, athetosis and ballism and what are the primary causes?

Chorea: rapid, distal dance like movements
Athetosis: writhing, random, slower
Ballism: proximal, large amplitude, flinging

Causes: huntingotns, benign hereditary chorea, neuroacanthocytosis, Wilsons

16

What is Huntingtons disease?

Inherited progressive neurodegenerative disoder which causes choreiform movements, psychiatric symptoms and dementia
Caused by a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene

17

What is the management of drug induced disorders?

Taper/withdraw offending agent
Tetrabenazine
Small dose dopamine agonist

18

What is dystonia?

A movement disorder characterised by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive movements, postures or both
Typically patterned, twisting and may be tremulous
Often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation

19

How does Botulinum toxin work?

Blocks ACh release, resulting in chemo-deneration