10.3 CNS infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10.3 CNS infections Deck (27)
1

What is the role of the BBB

form a continuous barrier between the blood and brain that restricts transport of ions, molecules, cells and pathogens

2

What forms the BBB?

Enodthelium lining the brain capillaries
- Intracellular tight junctions
- Limited pinocytic activity
- Basement membrane and astrocyte foot processes
- Specific carrier and transport systems

3

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexus in the ventricles of the brain

4

What is the normal flow of CSF

Lateral ventricles - third ventricle via intraventricular foramina of munro - fourth ventricle via aqueduct of sylvius - subarachnoid space via foramen of megendie

5

What forms the choroid plexus?

Capillaries separated from the ventricles by choroid epithelial cells (continuous with ependymal cells of the ventricles)

6

what prevents pathogen entry into CSF?

Tight junctions between the choroidal epithelial cells

7

Where are the potential sites for infection in the brain?

Meningitis: inflammation of meninges
Encephalitis: inflammation of the brain
Myelitis: inflammation of the spinal cord
Focal lesions/abcesses

8

What are the mechanisms of pathogen entry to the brain?

Physical pathway
Haematogenous
Peripheral nerve
Olfactory nerve

9

What is the physical pathway for pathogens?

BBB/BCB damaged by congenital defect, trauma or surgery, extensions from bone

10

What are the two kinds of haemogenous entry of pathogens?

Primary: blood infection after entry to the body usually from respiratory tract (neisseria meningiditis, viaral, fungal, bacterial)

Secondary to blood infection from primary focus elsewhere (pneumonia, endocarditis)

11

What is the peirpheral nerve entry to the brain?

Travel up an affected nerve to the brain - olfactory common as it doesn't have to travel far

12

What is the presentation of meningitis?

Photophobia, neck stiffness, headache and fever

13

What symptoms suggest a cause other than meningitis?

Confusion, seizures, neurological deficitis

14

What are the extraneural symptoms of meningitis?

Rash, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media

15

What is the fatal form and most common form of meningitis?

Bacterial: FATAL without antibiotics
Viral: most common but usually self limiting

16

What is the gram stain, risks and associations of strep pneumoniae meningitis?

Gram + dipolococci

Risks: hyposplenism,

17

What is the gram stain, risks and associations of Neisseria meningitides?

Gram - diplococci

Risks:

18

What is the gram stain, risks and associations of listeria monocytogenes?

Gram + bacillus

Risks: immunosuppressed (T cell def.), pregnancy and neonates

Associated: Subacute, history of unpast daisy, deli meat, raw salads

19

What is the gram stain, risks and associations of Group B strep?

Gram + cocci in chains

Risks: neonates

Associations: Maternal colonisaton and chorioamniotitis

20

What is the gram stain, risks and associations of mycobacterium tuberculosis

Risks: TB exposure in past, immunosuppressed

Associated: subacute-chronic presentation, tuberculomas

21

What are the common causes of viral meningitis and how do you treat it?

Enterovirus, Herpes simplex 2, varicella zoster, primary HIV

usually self limiting

22

What are the common causes of fungal meningitis?

Cryptococcus neoformans
Cryptococcus gatii (red river gums)

23

What are the common bacterial causes of meningitis?

Listeria monocytogenes
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

24

What is usually the cause of spinal epidural abscess and what is it?

Staph aureus
Collection of pus between the outermost layer of meninges and the vertebral column
EMERGENCY

25

Why is a spinal epidural abscess and emergency?

Can cause irreversible para/quadriplegia due to cord compression or infarction

26

What do you do to diagnose CNS infection?

Clinical history (inc exposure)
Imaging (encepahalitis, brain abscess, epidural abscess)
EEG (encephalitis)
Lumbar puncture (CSF analysis)
Blood cultures
Tissue biopsy

27

What do you measure on lumbar puncture?

Opening pressure
MCS microscopy (cell count +/- gram stain), culture, sensitivity
Protein
Glucose