1.1 + 1.2 esophagus etc; 1.3 fem reprod - 1st wk embryo Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.1 + 1.2 esophagus etc; 1.3 fem reprod - 1st wk embryo Deck (78)
1

stains nuclei blue in H&E stain

hematoxalin

2

basophilic stain in H&E stain

hematoxalin

3

acidophilic stain in H&E stain

eosin

4

stains cytoplasm & connective tissue pink in H&E stain

eosin

5

PAS stain stands for

periodic acid-Schiff stain

6

PAS stains nuclei what color

blue

7

stains glycoproteins pink

PAS

8

stains basement membranes pink

PAS

9

stains laminin pink

PAS

10

stains microvilli pink

PAS

11

stains cellular and connective tissue different colors

Azan stain or another "trichrome stain"

12

approximate light microscope resolution?

~1 micron

13

typical light microscope section thickness

5-10 microns

14

endothelium

lines blood vessels

15

serosa

outer layer of an organ consisting of epithelial layer (mesothelium) and connective tissue layer

16

adventitia

outer layer of an organ consisting of connective tissue without epithelial layer

17

adventitia vs serosa

outer layer of organ -- adventitia just connective tissue vs serosa connective tissue and epithelial boundary

18

layer surrounding all orifices, wet

mucosa

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mesothelium (adult)

simple squamous epithelial layer covering all true serous membranes

20

smooth muscle layer nearest the lumen of the esophagus

muscularis mucosae

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muscle layer adjacent to the serosa of the esophagus

muscularis externa

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connective tissue subjacent to the mucosa

submucosa

23

non-mucosal smooth muscle circling the esophagus

inner circular layer

24

non-mucosal smooth muscle outside the inner circular layer, running longitudinally along the esophagus

outer longitudinal layer

25

lamina propria

connective tissue layer within the mucosa connecting the mucosal epithelium and the muscularis mucosae

26

the muscular layers of the esophageal muscularis externa

inner circular layer; outer longitudinal layer

27

three layers of the esophageal mucosa

mucosal epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

28

what is the name of the muscular layer of a tubular organ if the muscularis mucosae is absent?

muscularis propria

29

what is the name of the muscular layer of a tubular organ if the muscularis mucosae is present?

muscularis externa

30

histological artifact

man-made structure created in processing

31

is mitochondria eosinophilic or hematoxophilic?

eosinophilic

32

why is it unusual to see the cell membrane by light microscopy?

thickness is small ~ 7.5 nanometers. LM resolution is ~ 1 micron

33

why do cells sometimes shrink away from each other in processing? e.g. smooth muscle cells separating into fascicles

dehydration by immersion in increasing concentrations of alcohol

34

name an anuclear cell

red blood cell

35

name 9 tissue layers of the esophagus

from lumen out
mucosa: -epithelium, -lamina propria, -muscularis mucosae
-submucosa
muscularis externa: -inner circular layer, connective tissue, -outer longitudinal layer
-adventitious/serous connective tissue
-mesothelium (serous epithelium)

36

name for the epithelial layer of the serosa

mesothelium

37

glycogen, glycoproteins, proteoglycans -- which 2 do PAS stain?

glycogen and glycoproteins, NOT proteoglycans

38

difference between glycoprotein and proteoglycan

glycoprotein = macromolecule containing glycogen and protein
proteoglycan = class of glycoprotein consisting of higher carb/protein ratios

39

what are two modern names for fallopian tube?

oviduct; uterine tube

40

two main functions of the ovary

oogenesis
hormone secretion

41

2 hormones secreted by ovary

estrogen
progesterone

42

3 regions of of uterine tube

fimbrae - sweep in oocyte from peritoneal cavity
infundibulum - funnel
ampulla - tube & usual site of fertilization

43

3 layers of uterus

endometrium
myometrium
perimetrium

44

2 layers of endometrium

functionalis - nurtures zygote or sloughs
basalis - stem cell layer

45

functionalis

layer of endometrium that nurtures zygote in pregnancy or sloughs off in menstrual cycle

46

basalis

stem cell layer of endometrium - not sloughed

47

3 phases of menstrual cycle

menstrual
proliferative
secretory

48

site of oocyte maturation

ovarian follicle

49

progression of ovarian follicular development to ovulation

-primordial follicle: oocyte surrounded by flat layer of follicular cells, developed before birth
-primary follicle: growth; follicular cells become granulosa cells; zona pellucida develops. this stage begins at puberty
-secondary follicle - fluid filled antrum develops within granulosa cells
-graafian follicle - mature follicle chosen for ovulation, ~day 14 of menstrual cycle

50

zona pellucida - what is it, when does it develop, when does it degenerate?

glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte; develops in the primary follicle; degenerates for implantation

51

3 innermost layers of an ovulated secondary oocyte

oocyte
zona pellucida
granulosa cells (corona radiata)

52

fluid filled compartment that develops in the secondary follicle

antrum

53

what is the name of the mature follicle just before ovulation?

graafian follicle

54

structure between uterus and vagina

cervix

55

male gamete is called:

spermatozoan

56

female gamete is called:

oocyte

57

contains enzymes to penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida of the oocyte

acrosome cap of the sperm

58

reaction when sperm reaches plasma membrane of oocyte that prevents multiple sperm from entering oocyte

zona reaction -- reaction of the zona pellucida

59

when sperm and oocye nuclei exist in plasma before fusing they are called:

pronuclei

60

fusion of sperm and oocyte results in a...

zygote

61

12 cell embryo stage is called...

morula

62

embryo is called a ______ when entering uterus

morula - 12 cell stage

63

morula enters uterus ___ days post fertilization

3-4 days

64

map from fertilization to implantation

zygote
2 cell stage
4 cell stage
12 cell stage - morula - 3-4 days post fert
blastocyst - implantation - 6 days post fert

65

2 parts of blastocyst

embryoblast - inner cell mass - rise of tissues
trophoblast - outer cell mass - rise of placenta

66

degenerates to allow implantation

zona pellucida

67

embryoblast

inner cell mass of blastocyst - gives rise to tissues of embryo

68

trophoblast

outer cell mass of blastocyst - gives rise to placenta

"trophe" = nutrition

69

how many days post fertilization does implantation occur?

~6 days

70

how many days into the menstrual cycle does fertilization typically occur?

day 14

71

what phase of the menstrual cycle does fertilization typically occur?

proliferative phase

72

tube of oviduct and typical site of fertilization

ampulla

73

structure that sweeps in ovulated oocyte from peritoneal cavity

fimbrae

74

funnel between the fimbrae and ampulla of oviduct

infundibulum

75

oocyte surrounded by flat layer of follicular cells, developed before birth

primordial follicle

76

growth; follicular cells become granulosa cells; zona pellucida develops. this stage begins at puberty

primary follicle

77

fluid filled antrum develops within granulosa cells

secondary follicle

78

graafian follicle

mature follicle chosen for ovulation, ~day 14 of menstrual cycle