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Flashcards in 2.3 lecture - cellular pathology - Toth Deck (105)
1

real histological space Must be lined with ___, otherwise the space is artifactual

epithelia

2

in the first 2 weeks of a conceptus, most cell proliferation occurs in what layer?

trophoblast

3

this is the only place you can find co-localized skeletal and smooth muscle

muscularis externa layer

4

the trophoblast is derived from This cell layer of the blastocyst

outer cell layer

5

this is a basophilic dye that stains bases, like nuclei and ribosomes

hematoxalin
nucleic "acids" in nucleus are technically "bases" at physiological pH

6

what makes a ribosome a "basic" cellular structure?

ribosomes are ~60% composed of RNA (ribonucleic Acid), but such "acids" will be basic at physiological pH

7

this is an acidophilic dye that stains acids, like mitochondria and and collagens

eosin
mitochondria is acidic because of [H+], think proton pump in e- transfer chain

8

is collagen acidic or basic?

acidic - it stains eosinophilic

9

what is the principle of an electron microscope stain?

e- density

10

give 2 examples of structures that stain darkly on electron microscopy

-chromosomes
-metals
(high e- density stains darkly)

11

what does a red blood cell look like on electron microscopy?

a ~ uniform gray cell - Fe in hemoglobin stains darkly on EM (high e- density)

12

what are 2 forms of chromatin

heterochromatin - tightly coiled DNA
euchromatin - loosely coiled DNA

13

this is the form of chromatin when it is likely not actively transcribed into RNA nor producing proteins

heterochromatin - packed DNA

14

this is the form of chromatin when it is likely actively transcribing and producing RNA and proteins

euchromatin - unpacked DNA

15

heterochromatin

tightly coiled "packaged" chromatin - likely not actively transcribed nor producing RNA / proteins

16

euchromatin

loosely coiled "unpacked" chromatin - likely actively being transcribed

17

process of natural, controlled cell death

apoptosis

18

acute, uncontrolled cell death

necrosis

19

cell division is called

mitosis

20

cells not undergoing mitotic division are in...

interphase

21

word for anything contained within the cell cytoplasm

an inclusion

22

lipid containing molecules of lysosomal digestion are called

lipofuscin

23

the process of adipocytes accumulating naturally in an organ is termed __

involution

24

"involution" means...

the process of something turning in upon itself

25

steatosis is...

the pathological retention of lipids within a cell (aka fatty change, fatty degeneration or adipose degeneration)

26

the word for the pathological retention of lipids within a cell (aka fatty change, fatty degeneration or adipose degeneration) is...

steatosis

27

what is the difference between involution and steatosis

-involution = the natural accumulation of adipocytes in an organ
-steatosis = the pathological accumulation of lipids within a cell

28

concretions refer to...

accumulations of mineralized deposits in an organ

29

accumulations of mineralized deposits in an organ are termed __

concretions

30

concretions =
involutions =
steatosis =

-concretions = accumulated mineral deposits in an organ
-involutions = normal accumulation of adipocytes in an organ
-steatosis = pathological accumulation of lipids in the cytoplasm

31

glycosylated proteins on or associated with the surface of a cell form the __

glycocalyx

32

the study of pathological morphology in cells is called...

cellular histopathology

33

this chromatin structure is a sign of relatively inactive transcriptional process in the cell

heterochromatin

34

this chromatin structure is a sign of relatively active transcriptional process in the cell

euchromatin

35

what are 2 time-points in the lifecycle of a cell lineage that often display heterochromatic nuclei?

-stem cells - may be relatively quiescent compared to differentiating daughter cells
-adult/terminally differentiated cell - some cells synthesize bulk of needed proteins during differentiation and quiet down as adults

36

differentiating cells are likely to display what characteristic nuclei?

euchromatic - actively transcribing and making proteins

37

there is less danger of discarded nuclear material bring taken up and recognized by a different cell (e.g. immune response) if the cell undergoes this process

apoptosis

38

T/F an apoptotic cell can be recognized by multiple blobs of strongly heterochromatic material

true

39

why is DNA in apoptosing cells highly heterochromatic?

chromosomes are tightly packaged an split apart in the process of apoptosis

40

an acute hypoxic event, mechanical trauma, and assault by a microorganism are all events that may cause this type of cell death

necrosis

41

necrosis can be recognized in individual cells by...

-deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm
-largely intact and uncondensed nucleus

42

T/F one is likely to see a few mitotic cells in most normal tissue

false - mitosis occurs fairly quickly

43

the presence of mitotic cells in a slide likely indicates that...

many of the cells of that tissue are dividing (either normally or abnormally - e.g. cancer)

44

appearance of a cell in metaphase

metaphase plate

45

appearance of a cell in anaphase

two v's of chromosomes being pulled to opposite sides

46

appearance of a cell in telophase

daughter cells pinching apart

47

in germ cells, prophase is recognizable because...

chromosomal duplication occurs in absence of a nuclear membrane and chromatin is free in the cell

48

this is a general term for anything contained in the cytoplasm

inclusion

49

T/F an inclusion can be normal or abnormal

true - inclusion is a general term for anything contained in the cytoplasm

50

this is a typical inclusion found in keratinocytes

melanin - gives rise to skin color

51

melanin appearing in cells in the dermal connective tissue is an example of

an abnormal inclusion requiring an explanation - melanin is usually found in keratinocytes of the epithelium, not dermal connective tissue

52

lipofuscin is...

a pigmented lipid, usually formed as a byproduct of a metabolic process, that accumulates because of a lack of a sufficient intracellular mechanism for its metabolism

53

this is a pigmented lipid, usually formed as a byproduct of a metabolic process, that accumulates because of a lack of a sufficient intracellular mechanism for its metabolism

lipofuscin

54

T/F lipofuscin is usually found in young cells

false - lipofuscin is a pigmented lipid, usually formed as a byproduct of a metabolic process, that accumulates because of a lack of a sufficient intracellular mechanism for its metabolism, and thus usually is found in aged cells

55

an example of a cell type that normally accumulates lipofuscin pigment includes...

neurons of the central nervous system - they are retained throughout life and thus normally accumulate lipofuscin

56

lipofuscin accumulation in this organ is a pathological example

the liver - hepatocytes of the liver are quickly replaced

57

T/F lipofuscin pigment accumulation in neurons of the CNS is usually pathological

false - CNS neurons are retained throughout life and thus normally accumulate lipofuscin

58

T/F lipofuscin pigment accumulation in hepatocytes of the liver is usually pathological

true - hepatocytes of the liver are quickly replaced. lipofuscin accumulation normally occurs in aged cells

59

change in cell shape (e.g. cuboidal to columnar or vice versa), change in cell size, or change in staining intensity are all examples of signs of...

swelling

60

2 examples of cells that accumulate lipid naturally include:

-adipocytes
-steroid-producing cells

61

2 examples of organs that accumulate lipid-containing cells as a function of age include:

-bone marrow
-thymus

62

"parenchymal" tissue is..

the essential & distinctive tissue of an organ

63

the replacement of an organ's parenchymal tissue with adipose tissue is called __

involution

64

involution is...

the replacement of an organ's parenchymal tissue with adipose tissue

65

the classical example of steatosis is...

the "fatty liver" - which occurs with chronic alcohol consumption or obesity

66

steatosis indicates

deficient or ineffective metabolic process within the cell

67

why is fatty accumulation in the liver usually indicative of a chronic condition?

liver cells turnover / regenerate fairly quickly

68

histologically, steatosis has the appearance of...

large clear fat accumulations that look like holes in tissue

69

lipids/fats/cholesterol usually stain what color?

clear - most dyes/stains are hydrophilic
! careful ! swelling may look similar

70

what is a possible difference in the appearance of fatty accumulation versus swelling?

-fat probably appears as large, clear staining accumulations that look like holes in tissue
-swelling probably appears as more diffuse, lighter stains rather than large holes...

71

what is a concretion?

an accumulation of mineralized substance as a terminal end-product of a metabolic pathway

72

are concretions found intracellularly or extracellularly?

both

73

2 examples of organs that normally form concretions include:

-lumen of the prostate (corpora amylacea - "starchy body")
-pineal gland (corpora arenacea - "brain sand")

in both cases, these normal concretions correlate with age

74

corpora amylacea

"starchy body" - a normal, age-correlated concretion in the lumen of the prostate

75

corpora arenacea

"brain sand" - a normal, age-correlated concretion in the pineal gland

76

why is the "pineal" gland so called?

"pineal" = pine cone = the appearance of the tiny gland

77

function of the pineal gland

"tiny pine cone" shaped gland in the vertebrate brain. produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions

78

function of the prostate gland

secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that usually constitutes 50–75% of the volume of the semen. The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm

79

describe the glycocalyx

a cloud of glycosylated proteins either inserted into membrane or associated with other proteins bound in the membrane

80

what is the general result of the glycocalyx

make the cell surface slippery. first point of interface

81

where in epithelial cells is the glycocalyx typically strong versus weak?

strong - membrane facing lumen
weaker - sides attached to adjacent cells or connective tissue

82

T/F strong glycocalyx is not typically found on microvilli

false - glycocalyx is strongly apparent in gut and nephric tubules where it takes advantage of the increased surface area of microvilli

83

you will see LM evidence of the glycocalyx in __ stains, especially in these 2 organs

-PAS stains
-gut and nephric tubules, where the glycocalyx is especially apparent due to increased surface area of microvilli

84

development of a strong glycocalyx on inappropriate cell surfaces can contribute to...

a cell's pathological migratory ability (as in some cancerous transformations)

85

cell growth - larger cells

hypertrophy

86

cell multiplication - more cells

hyperplasia

87

cell wasting away - smaller cells

atrophy

88

the opposite of hypertrophy is __

atrophy

89

the opposite of atrophy is __

hypertrophy

90

when cells grow differently than they should, the term is __

dysplasia

91

metaplasia

cells of one type are replaced by cells of another type

92

when epithelium of one type is displaced by epithelium of another type, the term is __

metaplasia

93

dysplasia

cells grow differently than they should

94

hypertrophy

cell growth - larger cells

95

hyperplasia

cell multiplication - more cells

96

atrophy

cell wasting away - smaller cells

97

on EM, a junctional complex is a good indicator of __

epithelia

98

"macula" means __

"spot"

99

on EM, this cell junction looks like a spot weld,
while this junction looks like a belt

-macula adherens
-zonula adherens

100

"fenestra" is latin for __

window

101

what do you call a simple squamous endothelial layer with holes between cells?

fenestrated endothelium

102

fenestrated endothelium

a simple squamous endothelial layer with holes between cells

103

on EM, stacked, curved membranes making cis and trans faces obvious compose the

golgi

104

on EM, steroid producing cells will exhibit these 2 structures

-smooth endoplasmic reticulum
-fat droplets

105

why are RBC's gray on EM?

packed with Hb --> Fe - electron dense