Flashcards in 2.3 lecture - cellular pathology - Toth Deck (105)
real histological space Must be lined with ___, otherwise the space is artifactual
in the first 2 weeks of a conceptus, most cell proliferation occurs in what layer?
this is the only place you can find co-localized skeletal and smooth muscle
muscularis externa layer
the trophoblast is derived from This cell layer of the blastocyst
outer cell layer
this is a basophilic dye that stains bases, like nuclei and ribosomes
nucleic "acids" in nucleus are technically "bases" at physiological pH
what makes a ribosome a "basic" cellular structure?
ribosomes are ~60% composed of RNA (ribonucleic Acid), but such "acids" will be basic at physiological pH
this is an acidophilic dye that stains acids, like mitochondria and and collagens
mitochondria is acidic because of [H+], think proton pump in e- transfer chain
is collagen acidic or basic?
acidic - it stains eosinophilic
what is the principle of an electron microscope stain?
give 2 examples of structures that stain darkly on electron microscopy
(high e- density stains darkly)
what does a red blood cell look like on electron microscopy?
a ~ uniform gray cell - Fe in hemoglobin stains darkly on EM (high e- density)
what are 2 forms of chromatin
heterochromatin - tightly coiled DNA
euchromatin - loosely coiled DNA
this is the form of chromatin when it is likely not actively transcribed into RNA nor producing proteins
heterochromatin - packed DNA
this is the form of chromatin when it is likely actively transcribing and producing RNA and proteins
euchromatin - unpacked DNA
tightly coiled "packaged" chromatin - likely not actively transcribed nor producing RNA / proteins
loosely coiled "unpacked" chromatin - likely actively being transcribed
process of natural, controlled cell death
acute, uncontrolled cell death
cell division is called
cells not undergoing mitotic division are in...
word for anything contained within the cell cytoplasm
lipid containing molecules of lysosomal digestion are called
the process of adipocytes accumulating naturally in an organ is termed __
the process of something turning in upon itself
the pathological retention of lipids within a cell (aka fatty change, fatty degeneration or adipose degeneration)
the word for the pathological retention of lipids within a cell (aka fatty change, fatty degeneration or adipose degeneration) is...
what is the difference between involution and steatosis
-involution = the natural accumulation of adipocytes in an organ
-steatosis = the pathological accumulation of lipids within a cell
concretions refer to...
accumulations of mineralized deposits in an organ
accumulations of mineralized deposits in an organ are termed __
-concretions = accumulated mineral deposits in an organ
-involutions = normal accumulation of adipocytes in an organ
-steatosis = pathological accumulation of lipids in the cytoplasm
glycosylated proteins on or associated with the surface of a cell form the __
the study of pathological morphology in cells is called...
this chromatin structure is a sign of relatively inactive transcriptional process in the cell
this chromatin structure is a sign of relatively active transcriptional process in the cell
what are 2 time-points in the lifecycle of a cell lineage that often display heterochromatic nuclei?
-stem cells - may be relatively quiescent compared to differentiating daughter cells
-adult/terminally differentiated cell - some cells synthesize bulk of needed proteins during differentiation and quiet down as adults
differentiating cells are likely to display what characteristic nuclei?
euchromatic - actively transcribing and making proteins
there is less danger of discarded nuclear material bring taken up and recognized by a different cell (e.g. immune response) if the cell undergoes this process
T/F an apoptotic cell can be recognized by multiple blobs of strongly heterochromatic material
why is DNA in apoptosing cells highly heterochromatic?
chromosomes are tightly packaged an split apart in the process of apoptosis
an acute hypoxic event, mechanical trauma, and assault by a microorganism are all events that may cause this type of cell death
necrosis can be recognized in individual cells by...
-deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm
-largely intact and uncondensed nucleus
T/F one is likely to see a few mitotic cells in most normal tissue
false - mitosis occurs fairly quickly
the presence of mitotic cells in a slide likely indicates that...
many of the cells of that tissue are dividing (either normally or abnormally - e.g. cancer)
appearance of a cell in metaphase
appearance of a cell in anaphase
two v's of chromosomes being pulled to opposite sides
appearance of a cell in telophase
daughter cells pinching apart
in germ cells, prophase is recognizable because...
chromosomal duplication occurs in absence of a nuclear membrane and chromatin is free in the cell
this is a general term for anything contained in the cytoplasm
T/F an inclusion can be normal or abnormal
true - inclusion is a general term for anything contained in the cytoplasm
this is a typical inclusion found in keratinocytes
melanin - gives rise to skin color
melanin appearing in cells in the dermal connective tissue is an example of
an abnormal inclusion requiring an explanation - melanin is usually found in keratinocytes of the epithelium, not dermal connective tissue
a pigmented lipid, usually formed as a byproduct of a metabolic process, that accumulates because of a lack of a sufficient intracellular mechanism for its metabolism
this is a pigmented lipid, usually formed as a byproduct of a metabolic process, that accumulates because of a lack of a sufficient intracellular mechanism for its metabolism
T/F lipofuscin is usually found in young cells
false - lipofuscin is a pigmented lipid, usually formed as a byproduct of a metabolic process, that accumulates because of a lack of a sufficient intracellular mechanism for its metabolism, and thus usually is found in aged cells
an example of a cell type that normally accumulates lipofuscin pigment includes...
neurons of the central nervous system - they are retained throughout life and thus normally accumulate lipofuscin
lipofuscin accumulation in this organ is a pathological example
the liver - hepatocytes of the liver are quickly replaced
T/F lipofuscin pigment accumulation in neurons of the CNS is usually pathological
false - CNS neurons are retained throughout life and thus normally accumulate lipofuscin
T/F lipofuscin pigment accumulation in hepatocytes of the liver is usually pathological
true - hepatocytes of the liver are quickly replaced. lipofuscin accumulation normally occurs in aged cells
change in cell shape (e.g. cuboidal to columnar or vice versa), change in cell size, or change in staining intensity are all examples of signs of...
2 examples of cells that accumulate lipid naturally include:
2 examples of organs that accumulate lipid-containing cells as a function of age include:
"parenchymal" tissue is..
the essential & distinctive tissue of an organ
the replacement of an organ's parenchymal tissue with adipose tissue is called __
the replacement of an organ's parenchymal tissue with adipose tissue
the classical example of steatosis is...
the "fatty liver" - which occurs with chronic alcohol consumption or obesity
deficient or ineffective metabolic process within the cell
why is fatty accumulation in the liver usually indicative of a chronic condition?
liver cells turnover / regenerate fairly quickly
histologically, steatosis has the appearance of...
large clear fat accumulations that look like holes in tissue
lipids/fats/cholesterol usually stain what color?
clear - most dyes/stains are hydrophilic
! careful ! swelling may look similar
what is a possible difference in the appearance of fatty accumulation versus swelling?
-fat probably appears as large, clear staining accumulations that look like holes in tissue
-swelling probably appears as more diffuse, lighter stains rather than large holes...
what is a concretion?
an accumulation of mineralized substance as a terminal end-product of a metabolic pathway
are concretions found intracellularly or extracellularly?
2 examples of organs that normally form concretions include:
-lumen of the prostate (corpora amylacea - "starchy body")
-pineal gland (corpora arenacea - "brain sand")
in both cases, these normal concretions correlate with age
"starchy body" - a normal, age-correlated concretion in the lumen of the prostate
"brain sand" - a normal, age-correlated concretion in the pineal gland
why is the "pineal" gland so called?
"pineal" = pine cone = the appearance of the tiny gland
function of the pineal gland
"tiny pine cone" shaped gland in the vertebrate brain. produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions
function of the prostate gland
secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that usually constitutes 50–75% of the volume of the semen. The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm
describe the glycocalyx
a cloud of glycosylated proteins either inserted into membrane or associated with other proteins bound in the membrane
what is the general result of the glycocalyx
make the cell surface slippery. first point of interface
where in epithelial cells is the glycocalyx typically strong versus weak?
strong - membrane facing lumen
weaker - sides attached to adjacent cells or connective tissue
T/F strong glycocalyx is not typically found on microvilli
false - glycocalyx is strongly apparent in gut and nephric tubules where it takes advantage of the increased surface area of microvilli
you will see LM evidence of the glycocalyx in __ stains, especially in these 2 organs
-gut and nephric tubules, where the glycocalyx is especially apparent due to increased surface area of microvilli
development of a strong glycocalyx on inappropriate cell surfaces can contribute to...
a cell's pathological migratory ability (as in some cancerous transformations)
cell growth - larger cells
cell multiplication - more cells
cell wasting away - smaller cells
the opposite of hypertrophy is __
the opposite of atrophy is __
when cells grow differently than they should, the term is __
cells of one type are replaced by cells of another type
when epithelium of one type is displaced by epithelium of another type, the term is __
cells grow differently than they should
cell growth - larger cells
cell multiplication - more cells
cell wasting away - smaller cells
on EM, a junctional complex is a good indicator of __
"macula" means __
on EM, this cell junction looks like a spot weld,
while this junction looks like a belt
"fenestra" is latin for __
what do you call a simple squamous endothelial layer with holes between cells?
a simple squamous endothelial layer with holes between cells
on EM, stacked, curved membranes making cis and trans faces obvious compose the
on EM, steroid producing cells will exhibit these 2 structures
-smooth endoplasmic reticulum