5.4 lab - cartilage, bone, synovial joint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5.4 lab - cartilage, bone, synovial joint Deck (94)
1

a high proportion of what material composes the lamina propria?

elastic fibers

2

a high proportion of what material composes the submucosa?

collagen

3

what materials compose the lamina propria and submucosa respectively?

lamina propria - elastic fibers
submucosa - collagen fibers

4

"hylaine" is a generic adjective that means __

glassy

5

cartilage is made of type __ cartilage

type II

6

2 matrix regions in hyalin cartilage

-territorial matrix - slighly more basophilic immediately surrounding isogenous group
-interterritorial matrix - lighter staining areas between territorial matrices

7

territorial matrix

slighly more basophilic area in hyaline cartilage immediately surrounding an isogenous group of chondrocytes

8

interterritorial matrix

lighter staining areas of hyalin cartilage between the territorial matrices that immediately surround isogenous groups of chondrocytes

9

slighly more basophilic area in hyaline cartilage immediately surrounding an isogenous group of chondrocytes

territorial matrix

10

lighter staining areas of hyalin cartilage between the territorial matrices that immediately surround isogenous groups of chondrocytes

interterritorial matrix

11

predominant resident cell of hyalin cartilage

chondrocyte

12

which portion of hyaline cartilage is relatively older and which is younger?

inner = older
outer = younger

13

why do isogenous groups form in cartilage?

because, unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not allow cell movement, so when a parent cell divides into daughter cells they are kept close to each other

14

where are isogenous groups more prominent, in the inner or outer portions of cartilage?

inner, older poriton of cartilage

15

the space in which a chondrocyte sits

lacuna

16

lacuna

the space in which a chondrocyte or osteocyte sits
(filled by cell in vivo, but cell shrinks in slide preparation so looks like an empty space with smaller cell inside)

17

is the outer fibrous layer of perichondrium or periosteum dense irregular or dense regular connective tissue?

in between
fibers randomly oriented in 2D, not 3D, so appear more like dense regular connective tissue or smooth muscle (but proper term is outer fibrous perichondrium layer)

18

what cells exist in the inner cellular layers of perichondrium and periosteum?

chondroblasts
osteoblasts

19

3 examples of fetal cartilage

nasal septum
meckel's cartilage
epiphyseal cartilage (closest to joint cavity)

20

U-shaped piece of fetal cartilage that has evolutionary significance as a structural element of the jaw. disappears in the adult

meckel's cartilage

21

how to tell fetal hyaline cartilage from adult hyaline cartilage

cartilage matrix will be less mature and isogenous groups will not be mature in fetal cartilage

22

the bridge of the nose is what kind of cartilage?

hyaline cartilage

23

the ear is what kind of cartilage?

elastic cartilage

24

elastic cartilage

hyaline cartilage with elastin fibers added to the matrix

25

stain for elastin

vaerhoeff's stain

26

vaerhoeff's stain

stains elastin (black)

27

are elastic fibers more concentrated in territorial matrix or interterritorial matrix of elastic cartilage?

territorial matrix (right around isogenous groups)

28

is there elastin in the perichondrial layer of elastic cartilage?

yes

29

fibrocartilage

a transitional tissue between connective tissue and hyaline cartilage - type I collagen invading hyaline cartilage matrix
-e.g. pubic symphysis, intervertebral disk, where perichondrium separates from from cartilage in joint cavity

30

where is fibrocartilage generally found?

where hyaline cartilage attaches to fibrous connective tissue

31

T/F elastic cartilage is found in the pubic symphisis

false
elastic cartilage in ear
fibrocartilage in pubic symphysis

32

T/F fibrocartilage is found in the ear and bridge of the nose

false
ear = elastic cartilage
nose bridge = hyaline cartilage
pubic symphysis = fibrocartilage

33

what does fibrocartilage look like on LM?

like dense connective tissue merging with cartilage and invading it to a degree

34

name 3 types of cartilage and examples of their locations

hyaline cartilage - joints, trachea, nose bridge
elastic cartilage - ear
firbocartilage - pubic symphysis, intervertebral disk, where perichondrium separates from from cartilage in joint cavity

35

T/F fibrocartilage is a transitional tissue

true
transition between connective tissue and hyaline cartilage

36

T/F compact and spongy bone exist on a continuum

true

37

cortical bone

compact bone surrounding spongy bone

38

the opposite of cortical bone is....

the medulla (spongy inner bone)

39

compact bone is also called...

cortical or dense

40

spongy bone is also called

cancellous or trabecular

41

trabecular bone =

spongy or cancellous bone

42

dense bone =

compact or cortical bone

43

non-mineralized spaces occur where in compact bone

haversian and volkmann's canals

44

non-mineralized spaces occur where in spongy bone

in the multitude of spaces between trabeculae
-unmineralized spaces may consists of fibrous connective tissue, adipose tissue, or hematopoietic tissue

45

what fills the unmineralized spaces of bones?

-fibrous connective tissue
-adipose tissue
-hematopoietic tissue
-blood vessels

46

what macroscopic classification of bone has the greatest strength / weight ratio?

spongy bone

47

birds have a typically higher percentage of what macroscopic class of bone?

spongy bone

48

what fills the marrow of bones?

-fibrous connective tissue
-adipose tissue
-hematopoietic tissue
-blood vessels

49

primary (woven) bone is laid upon...

a connective tissue matrix

50

lamellar (secondary) bone is laid upon...

existing bone
or replacing existing bone

51

the outer layer of a long bone is called the...

outer circumferential layer
(a layer of appositional growth)

52

the inner layer of a long bone is called the...

inner circumferential layer
(a layer of appositional growth)

53

outer circumferential layer

outer layer of appositional growth of long bone

54

inner circumferential layer

inner layer of appositional growth of long bone

55

cementing lines

deeply basophilic lines between successive lamellae of bone

56

deeply basophilic lines between successive lamellae of bone

cementing lines

57

how does haversion growth occur

-osteoclast cells bore a hole
-perfusion
-osteoblasts lay down lamellae; osteocytes

58

what is the name for each circular compact bone structure formed by haversian growth?

osteon

59

osteon

circular compact bone structure formed by haversian growth

60

the center of an osteon

haversian canal
-lacuna
-nerve, artery, vein
-endothelial cells
-connective tissue space
-osteocytes

61

main feature of a haversian canal

blood vessel (nerve, artery, vein)

62

lacuna in compact bone

space at center of haversian system / osteon

63

homologous spaces surrounding osteocytes and chondrocytes

lacunae

64

cells that fill lacunae in cartilage and bone

chondrocytes
osteocytes

65

volkmann's canals

connect osteons / haversian canals with vasculature

66

connect osteons / haversian canals with vasculature

volkmann's canals

67

bone and cartilage differ in that __ is vascular and __ is avascular

bone is vascular
cartilage is avascular

68

T/F parts of the vascular network in compact bone can lie outside of osteons

true
other larger blood vessels can be present

69

is the bone between osteons woven or lamellar?

depends on age / maturity
early - osteons replace woven bone
older - osteons replace other osteons

70

T/F in a younger bone, inner and outer circumferential lamellae occupy less of the total compact bone area

true
as bone ages, inner and outer lamella grow

71

T/F unlike in cartilage, the interface between bone and surrounding tissue always consists of at least one intact layer of cells

true
breaking a bone disrupts this layer and begins restorative response (analagous to breaking endothelial layer and initiating clotting response)

72

what is the function in the cellular periosteum and endosteum after bone breakage?

disruption of the cellular layer initiates the restorative response (analagous to breaking endothelial layer and initiating clotting response)

73

what initiates the restorative response following bone breakage?

disruption of the cellular layers (cellular periosteum and endosteum)
(analagous to breaking endothelial layer and initiating clotting response)

74

normally, the fibrous layer predominates the __osteum and the cellular layer predominates the __osteum

fibrous layer predominates periosteum
cellular layer predominates endosteum

75

how does a ground section of bone differ from a traditionally prepared histological section of bone?

ground section is still mineralized
(traditional sections are demineralized so they can be cut)

76

what are ground sections of bone useful for?

staining with an inert stain (india ink) which will show surface irregularities
-lacunae
-canaliculi

77

canaliculi

tiny channels that allow communication between trapped but still living and communicating osteocytes

78

tiny channels that allow communication between trapped but still living and communicating osteocytes

canaliculi

79

how can you prep a histological slide for visualization of canaliculi?

-use a ground section of bone (still mineralized)
-stain with an inert stain (india ink) which will show surface irregularities
-observe lacunae
-observe canaliculi

80

spaces between osteons

interstitial lamellae
-no longer functional osteons that have been replaced
-or woven bone if younger specimin

81

interstitial lamellae

spaces between osteons
-no longer functional osteons that have been replaced
-or woven bone if younger specimin

82

synovial joint

fluid filled cavity encapsulated by wall of periosteal tissue covering surface of two articulating bones

83

fluid filled cavity encapsulated by wall of periosteal tissue covering surface of two articulating bones

synovial joint

84

what composes the synovial membrane?

wall of periosteal tissue

85

put simply, a synovial joint is a joint that ....

moves freely

86

T/F articular cartilage is a specialized form of hyaline cartilage

true

87

how is articular cartilage distinct from hyaline cartilage?

differential staining
-the extracellular matrix stains differently because type II collagen fibers are aligned parallel to the surface

88

if there were such a thing as "dense irregular cartilage" this would be it

articular cartilage
-the extracellular matrix stains differently because type II collagen fibers are aligned parallel to the surface

89

every surface in the synovial joint should be either __ or __

articular cartilage or
synovial membrane

90

what composes the synovial membrane?

-type I collagen
-elastin
-synoviocytes
-A-cells - macrophage-like
-B-cells - secretory
-rich in sensory nerve fibers
-deeper fibrous layer

91

synoviocyte

resident cells of synovial membrane
A-cell - macrophage for local debris
B-cell - secretes synovial fluid

92

resident cells of the synovial membrane

synoviocytes:
A-cell - macrophage for local debris
B-cell - secretes synovial fluid

93

what kinds of fibers are found in the synovial membrane?

type I collagen
elastin

94

T/F the synovial membrane is not relatively innervated

false
rich in sensory nerve fibers