12 - Plant Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12 - Plant Nutrition Deck (40)

Carnivorous plants
Select one:
A. Depend on animals as a source of nitrogen
B. Plants that grow on other plants
C. Are parasitic
D. Are incapable of photosynthesis
E. Depend on animals as a source of carbon

Depend on animals as a source of nitrogen


How do the anions gain entry into the cell


through cotransporters (nitrate, phosphate or others)

H+ + NO3-


The CO2  released by the plant root reacts with _______ to form _____ which then releases ________


water; H2CO3 (carbonic acid); protons

H2O + CO2 -> H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+


How does loam create an ideal environment?



hold onto sm particles and minerals


What are the 6 macronutrients that form the plants structure


  • Carbon
  • nitrogen
  • hydrogen
  • oxygen
  • potassium


the loss of nutrients via the movement of water through soil is called _______. Why does this happen



because the negative ions are not bound to the soil


Soil particles have a _____ charge and this ______ water and _____

negative; attracts; ions


What is the most idea composition of inorganic materials



a mix of sand, silt, & clay


_____ of a nutrient will affect weather a nutrient will leave older leaves and travel to younger leaves who require it for their growth




The root secretes _____ ions to displace _______

H+; cations


How can pH affect the avalability of essential elements


  • affects cation exhange


What is soil composed of that is inorganic


  • sand
  • silt
  • clay
  • gravel


Decaying organic matter is called ________




Nitrogen fixation is
Select one:

A. Performed by mycorrrhizal fungi
B. Detrimental to plants
C. Performed only by plants
D. Supported by humus in the soil
E. The oxidation of nitrogen gas


Supported by humus in the soil


Roots release _____  as a by-product of ___________


CO2   cellular respiration


If either Mg2+ or Iron is defecient in a plant, what is the result

stunted growth and discolored leaves - if either of these nutrients are deficient chlorophyll productions will be affected causing discoloration of the leaves


list some of the other living organisms that support a plant`s nutrient uptake and survival

  • nitrogen fixing bacteria
  • humus
  • rhizobium bacteria
  • mycorrhizal fungus
  • actinomycetes


What are some of the ways that soil is created chemically?


  • mosses secrete weak acids


Of the inorganic composition of soil, which of them hold the nutrients for plants?





In a typical soil,
Select one:

A. more clay means more air space and oxygen for the roots
B. the topsoil tends to lose mineral nutrients by leaching
C. the majority of loam consists of large sized sand particles
D. dead and decaying matter is harmful to plants
E. only micronutrients are available to the plant

the topsoil tends to lose mineral nutrients by leaching


Describe what is going on with rhizobium bacteria


symbiotic relationship

the bacteria fixes N2 gasses into NH4+ which is used by the plant

and the plant provides sugar to the bacteria


A mineral deficiency is more likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if
Select one:
A. The mineral is required for chlorophyll synthesis
B. The mineral is a macronutrient
C. The mineral is very mobile within the plant
D. The older leaves are in the shade
E. The mineral is a micronutrient

the mineral is very mobile within the plant


What are some of the "other things found in soil?


fungi, pillbugs, bacteria, yeasts, worms

they help decompose matter and release materials that then can feed the plants


what charge do soil particles have?





Select one:
A. Function as catalysts
B. Are so called because they are more essential than micronutrients
C. Include manganese, boron, zinc and others
D. Are higher in atomic number than micronutrients
E. Are required in large concentrations
F. Are obtained by the process of photosynthesis

Are required in large concentrations


typical fertilizers are typically composed of which nutrients, and in what ratios

Nitrogen: Phosphorus: Potassium



define cation exchange


when protons bind to negative charges on clay particles and organic matter causing bound cations such as Mg2+ or Ca2+ to be released and avaliable for uptake by the plant roots


___________ (cations or anions) bind to organic matter in soil as well as to clay particles.   ______ (cations or anions) in contrast, tend to go into solution


cations, anions


How does humus help get nutrients to plants

it is a food source for bacteria creating NH4+

which then turns into NO3- and is easily taken up by the plant


list the inorganic composition of soil, list from the smallest to the largest in size


clay, silt, sand, gravel


How does myorrhizae  support plant life


symbiotic relationship

increases surface area for absorption

support the decompostion of matter


how is the plant able to have such a higher concentration intercellulary than the soil of desirable cations.  the cations must cross the plasma memrane against a strong concentration gradient, how does this work


becuse the root haris are secreting H+ ions this is kicks off the Ca2+ from the clay or soil particles and makes it available for the plant to take up the ions

essentially the change of the proton concentration gradient -> a separation of charge across the mb


If a nutrient is immoble, how will this affect new growth, or older leaves


it will affect the younger growth, not the older


List some of the ways that soil is created via mechanical mechanisim


  • freeze taw
  • wind
  • H2O
  • root growth


How are root hars an advantage for the plant


increase in surface area for available nutrient and water absorption


What are the nutrients that are obtained from CO2 or H2O


  • oxygen
  • carbon
  • hydrogen


What is up with the carnivourious plants


they live in poor N conditions, and have adapted to get their N from live beasts


Nutrients are present at low concentrations in the soil surrounding roots.  Plants import nutrients _________ (against or down) concentration gradient by _____ ______ into the extracellular space



pumping protons


Passive exclusion of ions occurs when ions cannot pass throught the _______________


casparian strip