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Flashcards in 9 - Cellular Respiration Deck (58)
1

How long does ATP last in your body

30 sec

unstable, and not stored

 

2

Cellular respiration happens in 4 steps, list them

 

  1. Glycolysis
  2. Pyruvate processing
  3. Citric acid cycle
  4. Electron Transport & chemiosmosis

3

Where does glycolysis occur

 

in the cytosol

4

Why do we breathe

 

to metabolize glucose into CO2 + H2O + ATP

5

There are two main ways that ATP can be cashed in on, what are they

  1. Cellular respiration
  2. Fermentation

6

How many steps are there in glycolysis

10 steps

7

For each molecule of glucose that goes into glycolysis, what is the net result

 

  • 2 molecules of ATP
  • 2 molecules of NADH
  • 2 molecules pyruvate

8

What happens when the are high levels of ATP in the system

ATP acts as an allosteric inhibition

9

What is feedback intuition

 

what a product impeds the process when its abundant

10

Where does the ATP bind when it is in abundance

 

onto the regulatory site

11

how many phosphate groups does the glycolysis process need to get over the energy barrier to start the reaction

 

2 ATP

12

Where is pyruvate processed

 

in the mitochondrial matrix

13

What does pyruvate react with as a coenzyme

 

Coenzyme A

14

What are the inputs for pyruvate processing

pyruvate

NAD+

Coenzyme A

15

What are the outputs for pyruvate processing

NADH

CO2

Acetyl CoA

16

When NAD+ are changed to NADH, what is occuring here

2 electrons are being given up

17

True/False

there are both positive and negative feedback controls for pyruvate processing

 

True

18

What is the purpose of the citric acid cycle

 

to extract electrons in CH3 bonds for acetyle CoA = has high PE

19

the citric acid cycle begins with ______ and ends with _________

 

citrate; oxaloatetate

20

Because glycosis produces ___ molecules of pyruvate, the citric acid cycle turns ___ times for each molecule processed in cellular respiration

2; 2

21

in the citric acid cycle, for each molecule of glucose, what are the outputs

 

6 CO2

10 NADH

2 FADH2

4 ATP

22

Is ubiquinoue a protein

 

no

it`s known as coenzyeme Q

23

what is a distigushing factor about coenzyme Q

consists of a carbon-containing ring witha hydrophobic tail

= moves easily through the membrane

24

How does a hibernating bear survive 7 months without eating and drinking. Don`t forget that the bear is exhaling H2O

through oxidative phosphoraliation - H2O is made

25

What is chemosmsis

the production of ATP via the proton gradient

the inner mitochondria mb acts as a dam and ATP synthase acts as a turbine with the BIG energy payoff

26

How many ATP molecules are made via chemiosmsis

 

25

27

What does aerobic mean

 

respiration that depends on O2

acts as electron acceptor

28

Which is in it`s oxiadized form NAD or NADH+

 

oxidized NAD

Reduced NADH+

29

What are the inputs and outputs in glucolysis

Net

  • Inputs: 2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 4 ADP
  • Outputs: 2ADP, 2 NADH, 4 ATP, 2 pyruvate
  • Net: 2 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate

30

Think of the electron carrier as a shuttle bus, it can take 2 passengers, when it is full it is ________, when it is empty it is _______.

 

reduced; oxidized

31

A molecule that gains an electron is said to be

 

reduced

32

Cellular respiration occurs in 4 main stages, list them

  1. gylcolysis
  2. pyruvate processing
  3. cyclic acid cycle
  4. Electron transport chain

33

gylcolysis`s purpose is to break down glucose by _________

 

oxidation

34

the first 5 steps of glycolysis requires what

 

E`y and use of 2 ATP

35

_______________ occus whan an enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from a phosphorylated substrate to ADP, forming ATP

substrate-level phosphorylation

36

which step in gylcyosis is feedback inhibition regulated

 

step 3

37

in the citric acid cycle how many times does it go around for every glucose molecule split

 

2 times

b/c 2 pyruvate in

38

Glycolysis

Select one:
A. Has no connection with the respiratory transport chain
B. Reduces 2 NAD+ per glucose
C. Is the reverse of fermentation
D. Produces 1 ATP per glucose
E. Takes place in the mitochondrion

 

B

39

The majority of the ATP produced during aerobic respiration is made by

Select one:
A. the electrons carried by NADH
B. the movement of hydrogen ions through an ATP synthase enzyme
C. substrate-level phosphorylation
D. autophosphorylation
 

B

40

During a redox reaction the molecule that gains an electron has been

Select one:
A. Reduced and now has a higher energy level
B. Oxidized and now has a lower energy level
C. Oxidized and now has a higher energy level
D. Reduced and now has a lower energy level
 

A

41

Which statement about pyruvate is NOT true?

Select one:
A. It becomes reduced during fermentation
B. It is a protein
C. It contains three carbon atoms
D. It is the end product of glycolysis
E. It is a precursor of acetyl CoA
 

B

42

Fermentation

Select one:
A. Requires lactic acid
B. takes place in all animal cells
C. takes place in the mitochondrion
D. does not require O2
E. Prevents glycolysis

D

43

The respiratory transport chain

Select one:
A. Is located in the mitochondrial matrix
B. Includes only peripheral membrane proteins
C. Reoxidizes reduced coenzymes
D. Operates simultaneously with fermentation

 

C

44

Compared with fermentation, the aerobic pathways of glucose metabolism produce

Select one:
A. More ATP
B. More oxidized coenzymes
C. Fewer protons for pumping in the mitochondria
D. Lactic acid
E. Less CO2

 

A

45

The citric acid cycle

Select one:
A. Takes place in the mitochondrion
B. Produces 3 ATP
C. Reduces 2 NAD+ for every glucose processed
D. Is an extension of fermentation

 

A

46

In the process of lactic acid fermenation, what are the inputs, & outputs

 

  • Inputs: 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH
  • Outputs: 2 lactate, 2 NAD+

47

An alchohol fermentation what are the inputs and outputs?

  • Inputs: Pyruvate is enzematically changed to acetyladehyde, 2 NADH
  • Outputs: 2 CO2, 2 Ethanol, 2 NAD+

48

fat off a camels back used to produce water and other needs of the body, what is this process called?

 

oxidative phosphoralization

49

What is cytochrome C?

 

in chemiosmosis, it acts as a shuttle that transfers electrons b/t complexes

50

What process of cellular respiration makes water?

where

Complex 4 in the mitochondrial matrix

 

51

Where in the mitochondria does the buildup of H+ occur?

 

Intermembrane space

52

Why is oxygen the most effective of all electron acceptors?

because of its high electronegativity

53

Why do cells in anarobic respiration make less ATP than does an aerobic respiration system?

 

cells that do not use O2 cannot generate such a large potential energy difference, so cannot make as much  ATP

54

Formation of ATP through the compination of proton pumping by electron transport chains and the action of ATP synthase is called _____________________

oxidative phosphorylation

55

____________ is a metabloic pathway that regenerates NAD+ from stockpiles of NADH and allows glycolysis to continue producting ATP in the absence of the the electron acceptor required by the ETC

 

fermentation

56

For each molecule of glucose metabolized, how many  molecules of ATP are made by fermenation?

2 ATP

 

versus the approximate 30 made by cellulare respiration

57

In cells _________ are routinely broken down by enzymes to form glycerol and acetyl CoA.  Glycerol enters the glycolytic pathway once it has been _____________ and _____________ to form glyceratldehyde-3-phospate- one of the intermediates in the 10-reaction sequence.  Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle

 

fats

oxidized and phosphorylated

58