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Flashcards in 4 - Carbohydrates Deck (18)
0

What are carbohydrates commonly known as?

sugar

1

Name a few monosaccharides

aldose, ketose

2

in a carbon ring, what kind of structure is it considered when the carbonyl group sticks above the plane?

beta rings

3

are saccharides hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic

4

In a carbon ring, when the carbonyl group sticks below the plane, what is that called?

alpha ring

5

what kind of bond holds carbohydrates together?

covalent bonds
joined by glycosidic linkages
at the alpha 1-4

6

When two sugars polymerize there is a condensation between two hydroxyl groups, what is this action called?

glycosidic linkage

7

Where is glycogen stored?

in the muscles and liver

8

starch is a monosaccharide found in ______ it is joined by glycosidic linkages

plants

9

What is the polysaccharide found in fungi & some algae?

Chitin

10

What is the polysaccharide found in bacteria?

peptidoglycan
most complex structure
has long parallel strands

11

list out some of the functions that carbohydrates do

*serve as a substrate for creating large molecules (DNA & RNA) in nucleotides
*the raw skeleton of cell walls
*indicates cell identity
*stores chemical info
*fibre
*structure
*energy

12

simple sugars differ in 3 respects

-location of their carbonyl group (C=O) -number of carbons present
-spacial arrangement of their atoms - especially the hydroxyl group

13

Which have higher free energy?
C-C
C-H
C-0

both C-C and C-H
as a result carbohydrates have much more free energy than carbon dioxide does

14

As energy storage goes, describe the difference between using carbohydrates or fats as fuel in cells

fats store twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates do, as well the CHO is hydrophillic, fats are hydrophobic therefore water goes where CHO goes

15

list out some of the functions of carbohydrates

energy storage
cellular stability
fibre
cell identity
substrate for making DNA & RNA

16

When you have 2 4 sugar polysaccharides can be different even if both consist of 2 glucose monomers & 2 galatose monomers

1) placement of the carbonyl group
2) placement of alpha and Beta sheets
3) sequence of Monomers
4) linkages in a line - the branches

17

How are sugars linked?

glycosidic linkages between 2 hydroxyl groups, involving dehydration