Flashcards in 4 - Carbohydrates Deck (18)
What are carbohydrates commonly known as?
Name a few monosaccharides
in a carbon ring, what kind of structure is it considered when the carbonyl group sticks above the plane?
are saccharides hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
In a carbon ring, when the carbonyl group sticks below the plane, what is that called?
what kind of bond holds carbohydrates together?
joined by glycosidic linkages
at the alpha 1-4
When two sugars polymerize there is a condensation between two hydroxyl groups, what is this action called?
Where is glycogen stored?
in the muscles and liver
starch is a monosaccharide found in ______ it is joined by glycosidic linkages
What is the polysaccharide found in fungi & some algae?
What is the polysaccharide found in bacteria?
most complex structure
has long parallel strands
list out some of the functions that carbohydrates do
*serve as a substrate for creating large molecules (DNA & RNA) in nucleotides
*the raw skeleton of cell walls
*indicates cell identity
*stores chemical info
simple sugars differ in 3 respects
-location of their carbonyl group (C=O) -number of carbons present
-spacial arrangement of their atoms - especially the hydroxyl group
Which have higher free energy?
both C-C and C-H
as a result carbohydrates have much more free energy than carbon dioxide does
As energy storage goes, describe the difference between using carbohydrates or fats as fuel in cells
fats store twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates do, as well the CHO is hydrophillic, fats are hydrophobic therefore water goes where CHO goes
list out some of the functions of carbohydrates
substrate for making DNA & RNA
When you have 2 4 sugar polysaccharides can be different even if both consist of 2 glucose monomers & 2 galatose monomers
1) placement of the carbonyl group
2) placement of alpha and Beta sheets
3) sequence of Monomers
4) linkages in a line - the branches