Memory Flashcards

1
Q

Who created the MSM?

A

Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968

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2
Q

Name the 3 different sections of memory that MSM states

A

Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory, Long-Term Memory

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3
Q

Explain Sensory Memory; capacity, duration, encoding, and how info is forgotten (MSM)

A

C - 4-10 bits (Huge)
D - 50ms to 1/2 a second
E - All Modalities
F - Decay

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4
Q

Explain Short-Term Memory; capacity, duration, encoding, and how info is forgotten (MSM)

A

C - 7+/- 2
D - 18-30s
E - Acoustically
F - Decay, and Displacement

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5
Q

Explain Long-Term Memory; capacity, duration, encoding, and how info is forgotten (MSM)

A

C - Unlimited
D - Lifetime
E - Semantically
F - Lack of cues, and retrieval failure

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6
Q

Explain how info passes from one section to the next (MSM)

A

Sensory - STM; attention is needed
STM - LTM; rehearsal is needed

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7
Q

What are the types of Long-Term Memory?

A

Procedural - remembering HOW to do things
Episodic - remembering specific events
Semantic - remembering WHAT something does

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8
Q

Name 2 positive evaluations of the MSM

A
  • Squire’s MRI Scan (1992) - discovered when asked questions involving LTM, hippocampus was more active, Short-TM, frontal cortex - Separate
  • Glazner and Cunitz (1966) - P’s memorised a list of words, first and last words were remembered most - LTM and STM exist
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9
Q

Name 3 negative evaluations of MSM

A
  • Deterministic
  • Tulving 1985 - theory of multiple types of LTM - MSM is too simple
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10
Q

Who created the Working Memory model?

A

Baddeley and Hitch, 1974, updated 2000

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11
Q

Name the sections of the WMM

A

Central Executive, Visio-spatial Sketch Pad, Episodic Buffer, and Phonological-loop

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12
Q

Explain the Central Executive

A
  • controls attention
  • large capacity
  • controls the subsidiary slave systems
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13
Q

Explain the Visio-spatial Sketch Pad

A
  • stores visual and spatial information
  • iconic coding
  • (inner eye)
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14
Q

Explain the Phonological Loop

A

Articulatory Control Process:
- sub-vocal voice
Phonological Store
- codes acoustic info, duration of 2 seconds
(inner ear)

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15
Q

Name 2 positive evaluations of WMM

A
  • Braver et al (1997) - Tasks involving Central Executive were given, increasing difficulty meant more activity in the pre-frontal cortex - CE
  • Baddeley, Thompson and Buchanan (1975) - word length effect - P’s were given monosyllabic and polysyllabic list of words, monosyllabic were easier to recall (phonological loop)
  • Researcher found 2 tasks involving one store was more difficult (separate stores in the brain)
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16
Q

Name a negative evaluation of the WMM

A
  • Central Executive doesn’t have much evidence
  • Unfalsifiable
17
Q

Name the 3 different types of forgetting

A
  • Interference - forgetting because one memory blocks another
  • Context-dependent forgetting - can’t remember due to being in a different environment than when the info was encoded
  • State-dependent forgetting - can’t remember due to being in a different emotional state when the info was encoded
18
Q

Explain an experiment about Interference

A

Baddeley & Hitch (1977)
- Rugby players were asked to recall the names of teams they’ve played against.
- Those that had played less games, had better recall

McDonald
- Ps remember words, found most similar words were recalled worse

Tulving
- Found cues played a huge part in successful recall, thus pro/retro only cause a temporary loss of memory

19
Q

Explain an experiment about Context-Dependent Forgetting

A

Godden and Baddeley (1975)

  • Asked 18 divers to remember a list of words, done in 4 conditions:
    Learn on beach, recall on water, vice versa
    Learn on beach, recall on beach, vice versa
  • When recalling in the same place as learning, there was better recall
20
Q

Explain an experiment about State-Dependent Forgetting

A

Godwin et al (1966)

  • 48 male medics had 2 training sessions, done in different conditions:
    Drunk drunk, Sober sober
    Drunk sober, and vice versa
  • Those in the same state in both sessions had better recall
21
Q

Explain the ‘weapon focus effect’

A

Loftus & Palmer (1979)

  • Participants heard discussion next door, ans then saw either someone with a pen and grease on his hands (A) or someone with a paper knife (B)
  • ID of the man with the paper knife (B) was worse
22
Q

Explain ‘the effect of misleading questions’ experiment

A

Loftus (1975)

  • P’s were shown a video of a car accident
  • Some were asked questions that were consistent with the film (A)
  • Some were asked questions that involved a barn that didn’t exist (B)
  • Group (B) had higher recall of there being a barn
23
Q

Explain the ‘use of leading questions’

A

Loftus (1974)

  • P’s shown a video of a road traffic accident
  • Asked questions with different words e.g. bumped, smashed
  • P’s hearing less intense phrases (bumped) gave lower estimates of speed
24
Q

Explain the ‘blatantly incorrect information’ experiment

A

Loftus (1975)

  • P’s shown a set of slides, showing theft of a red bag
  • Immediate recall - 98% correctly recalled the colour
  • P’s read an account, that wrongly stated the colour of the bag
  • Asked questions again
  • All still correctly stated the colour of the bag
25
Q

List the stages of the cognitive interview

A
  • Reinstate the context - Interviewee recalls the environmental context and personal context
  • Report everything - Interviewer encourages the reporting of every single detail of the event
  • Change order - Interviewer tries alternative ways through the timeline of the incident
  • Change perspective - Interviewee recalls from different perspectives
26
Q

Describe a study done into coding

A
  • Baddeley gave different lists of words to 4 groups of participants
  • When asked to recall immediately, they were worse at acoustically similar words
  • When asked after 20mins, they were worse on semantically similar words
  • Shows STM is Acoustic, LTM is Semantic
27
Q

Describe a study done into capacity

A
  • Jacob asked participants to recall numbers increasing in digit size
  • Recall dropped at 7 digits
    (Miller’s magic 7)
28
Q

Describe a study done into duration

A
  • Peterson gave participants consonant syllable (YCG) and then a 3 digit number they had to count back from
  • Found worse recall of the consonant syllable and original number after 18 seconds
29
Q

Evaluate the different types of LTM

A
  • Clive Wearing, had no episodic memory but had others (case study)
  • Conflicting research of the location of semantic and episodic, both seem to be in the prefrontal cortex
  • Real world application - understand those with memory problems
30
Q

What is proactive interference?

A

Older memory interferes with new
Degree of forgetting is greater when memories are similar

31
Q

What is retroactive interference?

A

Newer memory interferes with the old
Greater when similar

32
Q

Describe 3 studies done into EWT involving anxiety

A
  • Weapons Focus Effect (too focused on knife)
  • Yulle and Kutshall (found after a shooting in Canada, 5 months later, they could correctly identify the shooter)
  • Dodson’s meta-analysis found there’s an optimum amount of anxiety that causes highest recall
33
Q

Evaluate the cognitive interview

A
  • Meta-analysis found cognitive interview is better at recall than old police interview
  • Not all elements are equally as useful (police officer’s natural suspicion caused more recall)
  • Real world application (used today)