1.3- Anatomy of the Cerebrum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.3- Anatomy of the Cerebrum Deck (121):
1

What are the three parts of the brain?

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, and Brain Stem

2

True or False: If laid flat, the brain neurons would fit into cranium.

False. If laid flat, the neurons would cover approx. 1 sq meter (size of opened up newspaper).

3

At what age of development does the brain begin to gather forming an irregular surface?

6 weeks

4

1. ________ - depression
2. ________ - ridge

1. Sulcrus- depression
2. Gyrus- ridge

5

What is the brain covered in ridges (gyri) and depressions (sulci)?

Allows a large surface area to be compacted into a small space (cranium)

6

The cerebrum is divided into 2 hemispheres. What hemisphere is the analytical side? The artistic side?

Left hemisphere- analytical side (science & math)
Right hemisphere- artistic side (creativity)

7

What is the term for the other surface later of the cerebrum composed of gray matter?

Cerebral cortex

8

What term describes the cell bodies and synapses of the neurons?

Gray matter

9

What term makes up most of the inner surface of the cerebrum?

White matter

10

What part of the cerebrum processes and integrates info?

Gray Matter

11

What part of the cerebrum is composed of axonal tracts?

White matter

12

Why is white matter the color white?

because of the myelin

13

What part of the cerebrum transmits information?

White matter

14

What are the dark areas within the white matter deep in the cerebrum?

Deep nuclear areas

15

What is the purpose of the deep nuclear areas?

made of groups of cells dedicated to similar/special functions

16

List the composition layers of the cerebrum from the outer layer towards the inner layer.

1. Cerebral cortex (composed of gray matter)
2. White matter (composed of axonal tracts)
3. Deep nuclear areas (dedicated to similar functions)

17

What is the purpose of gray matter? white matter?

Gray matter- processes and integrates info
White matter- transmits info

18

What divides the hemispheres into right and left halves?

Longitudinal fissure

19

What runs horizontally, divides the temporal lobe?

Lateral (Sylvian) fissure

20

What is not as deep as a fissure, divides Frontal from the Parietal lobe?

Central Sulcus

21

What connects the hemispheres of the cerebrum?

Corpus Collosum

22

What is a group of axons that transmits info? What is another name for this?

Fibers

Tracts

23

What are axons running from cortex down out of hemisphere into the SC?

Projection fibers

(leave via spinal cord...out of brain to periphery)

24

What runs from 1 hemisphere to the other through the corpus collosum and helps the hemispheres communicate?

Commissural fibers

25

What stays in hemisphere for origin, connecting one lobe to another?

Association fibers

(never leaves assigned hemisphere...helps w/ communication in that hemisphere)

26

Where do projection fibers run?

from cortex down out of hemisphere into the SC

27

Where do commissural fibers run?

from 1 hemisphere to the other through the corpus collosum

28

Where do association fibers run?

in hemisphere of origin

29

What type of fibers help the hemispheres communicate?

commissural fibers

30

Where are they located???
1. Longitudinal fissure-
2. Lateral (sylvian) fissure-
3. Central sulcus-
4. Gray matter-
5. White matter-

1. Longitudinal fissure- divides left and right hemispheres
2. Lateral fissure- runs horizontally, divides the temporal lobe
3. Central sulcus- divides frontal from parietal lobe
4. Gray matter- outer surface layer of cerebrum
5. White matter- inner surface of cerebrum

31

What does the Corpus Collosum do?

connects the hemispheres are the cerebrum

32

How many ventricles in the brain?

4 (2 lateral, third, fourth)

33

What is a ventricle?

an opening in the brain

34

What are the 3 horns of the lateral ventricle?

anterior horn, posterior horn, inferior horn

35

What ventricle horn is located in the frontal lobe?

Anterior horn

36

What ventricle horn is located in the temporal lobe?

Inferior horn

37

What ventricle horn is located in the occipital lobe?

Posterior horn

38

What is their lobe location???
1. Posterior horn-
2. Inferior horn-
3. Anterior horn-

1. Posterior horn- occipital lobe
2. Inferior horn- temporal lobe
3. Anterior horn- frontal lobe

39

The Foramen of Monro connects ___________.

connects the lateral ventricle to third ventricle

40

What lines the inner surface of the lateral ventricles (and to a lesser degree, the third and fourth ventricles)?

Choroid Plexius

41

What connects the lateral ventricle to the third ventricle?

Foramen of Monro

42

What does the Choroid Plexius produce?

Cerebral Spinal Fluid

43

Where is Cerebral Spinal Fluid produced?

Choroid Plexius (inner surface of the lateral ventricles)

44

What 3 things does the CSF do?

1. provides protection to the neurons from pressure
2. delivers some nutrients from the blood
3. produces 1mL/min

45

What provides protection to the neurons from pressure?

CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)

46

What delivers some nutrients from the blood?

CSF

47

What is the very thin area formed where the 2 halves of the cerebrum come together (1 only)?

Third Ventricle

48

What connects the third ventricle to the fourth?

Cerebral Aquaduct

49

The cerebral aquaduct connects ________

the third ventricle to the fourth

50

The third ventricle is a _________.

very thin area formed where the 2 halves of the cerebrum come together.

51

What is???
Lateral ventricle -> third ventricle -> cerebral aquaduct -> fourth ventricle -> body via spinal cord -> return to cranial area -> arachnoid villi -> released by 1-way valves in sinus to circulatory system

general idea of the flow of the cerebral spinal fluid

52

What are meninges?

coverings of brain and spinal cord

53

What are the names of the meninges in orders from outer layer to inner layer?

Dura Mater -> Arachnoid -> Pia Mater

54

_________ means "tough mother"

Dura Mater

55

_______ means "spiderlike" - very delicate

Arachnoid

56

This is very thick and fibrous, usually 2 layers but because it is connected by many fibers usually can't separate

Dura Mater

57

In areas around the sutures of the skull, the dura mater separates into
1.
2.

1. Periostial layer
2. Visceral layer

58

Where are you most likely to see the 2 layers of Dura Mater?

around the sutures of the skull

59

Where is the periosteal layer of dura mater?

follows cranium (bone)

(covers the bone)

60

Where is the visceral layer of dura mater?

follows contour of the brain

(closer to brain)

61

_________ - areas formed between the 2 layers of dura where the CSF is returned to the venous system

Dural sinus

62

What is the most important dural sinus?

Superior Saggital Sinus

63

What is the area between the Dura Mater and the skull?

Epidural space

64

Where is the dural sinus found?

between the 2 layers of dura where the CSF is returned to the venous system

65

Where is the epidural space?

between the Dura Mater and the skull

66

What is physically connected to the Pia but not the Dura?

Arachnoid

67

What causes the Arachnoid to balloon against the Dura- no visible space in between in a normal brain?

CSF

68

Why is there no visible space between the Arachnoid and the Dura in a normal brain?

CSF causes the Arachnoid to push against the Dura

69

What is the area between the Dura and Arachnoid called?

Subdural space

70

What is the space under the Arachnoid where the CSF flows called?

Subarachnoid space

71

What are the fingerlike projections of the Arachnoid that push into the dural sinus allowing the CSF to escape the system (act as a 1 way valve)?

Arachnoid Villi

72

What is the difference between the subdural space and subarachnoid space?

The subdural space is between the dura and arachnoid. The subarachnoid space is under the arachnoid.

73

Arachnoid Villi~
Relatively higher CSF pressure opens the one way valve allowing the CSF to escape into the ________ - a constant process that regulates _______

venous flow

pressure

74

What is the innermost layer that follows all the contours of the brain and SC- has physical connections to them?

Pia Mater

75

The Pia Mater contains ______________.

cerebral circulation

76

True or False: The Pia Mater is attached to the cerebral cortex.

True. The Pia Mater is physically connected to cerebral cortex- blood flow circulation of the brain, not CSF.

77

What is the strongest layer of the meninges? The weakest?

Strongest- Dura Mater- thick and fibrous
Weakest- Arachnoid- very delicate

78

CSF flows between what two meninges layers?

Arachnoid and Pia

79

Name the 4 lobes of the brain.

Frontal, Temporal, Occipital, and Parietal

80

What lobe of the brain controls voluntary movement?

Frontal lobe

81

What lobe of the brain is sensory?

Parietal lobe

82

What lobe of the brain is visual?

Occipital

83

What lobe of the brain is auditory?

Temporal

84

What lobe of the brain is in the front portion of the cerebrum? Middle portion? Back portion? Lateral portion?

Front- Frontal lobe
Middle- Parietal
Back- Occipital
Lateral- Temporal

85

The frontal lobe controls ______________.

voluntary movement (It is the primary motor cortex).

86

Where is the Broca's area?

left frontal hemisphere

87

What is Broca's area?

plans movements of mouth for motor speech (including feeding)

88

In opposite hemisphere, Broca's area is responsible for________________.

nonverbal communication, including gestures

89

Name some things the frontal lobe is responsible for.

Judgment, attention, awareness, abstract thinking, mood, planning, all higher cognitive function

90

The Parietal lobe is the _____________ and plays a role in _____________.

Primary Sensory Cortex

short term memory

91

Parietal lobe/Primary Sensory Cortex receives incoming ____________, _______, and _________.

receives incoming sensory info from the body, processes it, and assigns meaning.

92

What plays a role in short term memory?

Parietal lobe

93

What is responsible for judgment, attention, awareness, abstract thinking, mood, planning, all higher cognitive functions?

Frontal lobe

94

What hemisphere is responsible for nonverbal communication?

Right frontal hemisphere

95

The occipital lobe is the _____________.

Primary Visual Cortex

96

The Primary Visual Cortex __________________.

receives, organizes, and interprets visual input

97

The temporal lobe is also known as the ___________ and _______________.

Primary Auditory Cortex

receives and processes auditory information

98

What is Wernicke's area?

association area that allows person to comprehend spoken language (loss here severely disrupts communication left > right)

99

Where is Wernicke's area?

Temporal lobe

100

What lobe is associated with long term memory, balance, association between the senses?

Temporal lobe

101

What system is buried deep within the brain and is referred to as our "reptilian brain"?

Limbic system

102

What part of the brain is responsible for "fight or flight", fear, anxiety, sex, territorial behavior, and plays a role in formulating memories?

Limbic system

103

What part of the brain are areas within the 4 lobes that horizontally link different parts of the cortex?

Association Cortex

104

What deep part of the brain allows info from the different lobes to be integrated?

Association Cortex

105

What 4 parts are part of the deep nuclei?

Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Internal Capsule, and Basal Ganglia

106

What part of the deep nuclei is active in posture and muscle tone?

Basal Ganglia

107

This part of the brain coordinates automatic movement (swinging arms when walking)?

Basal Ganglia

108

What substance is a primary problem in Parkinson's and where is it found?

The substance is Substantia Nigra (produces dopamine) and it is found in the Basal Ganglia.

109

__________ - made of axons descending from the frontal lobe motor areas and axons returning from the body

Internal Capsule

110

What part of the deep nuclei plays a role in sensory reception?

Thalamus

111

________ - receives sensory info and channels it to appropriate association areas and lobes of the cortex for interpretation

Thalamus

112

This part of the brain lies under the thalamus.

Hypothalamus

113

This part of the brain works with the endocrine system by controlling the pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

114

What does the hypothalamus do?

regulates homeostasis (balances internal environment) - hunger, body temp, BP

115

You have decreased/lost of motor function on the right side. What hemisphere of the brain was affected by a stroke?

left hemisphere

116

You have a loss of body image and may not be aware of the opposite side of the body. What side of the brain was affected by a stroke?

Right hemisphere

117

You have significant problems with communication but are not combative. What side of the brain was affected by stroke?

Left hemisphere

118

You have a loss of judgment and are impulsive. What side of the brain was affected by stroke?

Right hemisphere

119

The left hemisphere contains Broca's area. You have a stroke in the left hemisphere. What side affect will you suffer?

Problems with mouth movement (motor speech and feeding)

120

Stroke in left hemisphere~
1.
2.
3.
4.

1. Significant problems w/ communication
2. decreased/lost of motor function right side
3. Depression- aware of loss and unable to communication
4. Not combative

121

Stroke in right hemisphere~
1.
2.
3.
4.

1. Loss of body image (may not be aware they have the opposite side of the body)
2. Motor loss left side
3. Loss of judgment- no concept of self limitations
4. Impulsive