1.3 Biological Molecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.3 Biological Molecules Deck (71):
1

What is role of Ca2+

Nerve impulse

2

What ions are used in nerve impulse

Na+ and K+

3

What is role of Cl-

Cofactor to amylase

4

How is water specialised

Polar regions

Less dense as solid as molecules fixed further apart

Cohesive and adhesive

5

What properties of water are advantageous

Good solvent

Coolant

Cohesive and adhesive

6

What is an example of hexose monosaccharides

Glucose

7

Is glucose soluble and polar

Yes

8

What kind of bonds does glucose form

Glycosidic bonds

9

What kind of reaction joins glucose molecules

Condensation reaction

10

What carbons join when glucose molecules join

C1 and C4

11

In alpha glucose where is OH group on C1

Below

12

What is the form of glucose in plants

Starch

13

What are the two forms of starch

Amylose - compact helix

Amylopectin - branch structure good energy store has 1-6 bonds

14

What is glucose stored as in animals

Glycogen

15

How is glycogen adapted to be storage molecules

C1-4 and C1-6

Gives branch structure

Compact

Insoluble

16

What is form of Beta glucose

Cellulose

17

How does Beta glucose bond

Upside down so form straight chain

18

What do microfibrils make when they join

Macro-fibrils

19

What chemical used to test for reducing sugar

benedicts and heat

20

What colour does benedicts go in presence of sugar

Red

21

What colour shows low levels of sugar

Green

22

If non reducing sugar is being tested for what else needs to be added to benedicts

Hcl to break double bond

23

What causes colour change in benedicts

Cu2+ ions being reduced

24

What tests for starch

yellow to purple/black

25

What are properties of a lipid

Non-polar and insoluble

26

What is term to describe lipid

Macromolecules

27

What is an unsaturated fat at RTP

oil

28

What is saturated fat at RTP

solid

29

What is structure of triglycerides

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

30

What bond do lipids form

Ester bonds

31

What are benefits of lipids

Long term energy (high conc of c-h)

insulation

buoyancy

32

What is example of sterol

Cholesterol

33

What is structure of cholesterol

Hydrocarbon ring + OH

34

What molecule is added to phosopholipid

Inorganic phosphate

35

Which is hydrophobic part of phospholipid

Fatty acid tail

36

Which is hydrophillic part of phospholipid

Phosphate head

37

What structure do phospholipids form

Phospholipid bilayer

38

How do you test for lipid

Emulsion test- mix ethanol with water and should form white layer

39

What forms a peptide bond

amine and carboxyl group

40

What catalyses peptide bond

peptidyl transferase

41

What 2 forms are there in secondary structure

Alpha helix

Beta pleAted sheet

42

What kind of bonds can occur in tertiary structure

Hydrophillic/phobic

H bonds

Ionic

Disulfide

43

What happens in quaternary structure

When 2 sub units interact

44

What is an example of quaternary protein

Haemoglobin

45

What are the types of protein

Globular

Fibrous

Conjugated

46

What are features of protein

Compact

Water soluble

Spherical

47

What is structure of a conjugated protein

Globular with prosthetic group

48

What is Fe2+ prostethic group for

Catalase

Haemoglobin

49

What are features of fibrous proteins

Long

Insoluble

Strong

50

What do fibrous proteins have lots of

Hydrophobic R groups

51

What are three types of fibrous protein

Keratin

Elastin

Collagen

52

What makes keratin strong

Contain cystine which has sulfur

53

What is structure of collagen

3 polypeptide chains

54

How to test for protein

Add sodium hydroxide

Add copper sulfate

Colour change to purple

55

What is structure of nucleic acid

Pentose monosaccharide

Hydroxyl group

56

What bond is formed between nucleic acid

Phosphodiester

57

What forms phosphodiester bond

Phosphate group and OH

58

What is sugar in DNA

Deoxyribose

59

Which nucleic acid have double carbon ring

Purines

60

What nucleic acids are single carbon rings

Pyramidines

61

What are purines

A G

62

What are pyramidines

C T

63

What is sugar in RNA

Ribose

64

What replaces thymosine

Urasil

65

What kind of replication is DNA replication

Semi Conservative

66

What breaks bond in DNA

DNA helicase

67

What joins nucleotides

DNA polymerase

68

What codes for an amino acid

Codon

69

What is a codon made up of

3 amino acids

70

What is stage called when DNA is translated to mRNA

transcription

71

What is mRNA to protein called

Translation