Flashcards in Respiration Deck (84):
Whats the formula for respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------ 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy
What is the definition of respiration?
The release of chemical potential energy from organic molecules
What is ATP
Phosphorylated nucleotide with 3 phosphate
What is the first stage of respiration?
What are the stages of glycolysis
- becomes bisphosphate
-requires 2 ATP
- split hexose bisphosphate to triose phosphate
- go from triose phosphate to triose bisphosphate
- triose bisphosphate oxidised to pyruvate
- Hydrogen is removed which is done by dehydrogenase
- H reduced NAD
Where does glycolysis take place?
Is glycolysis anaerobic or aerobic?
Whats the equation for glycolysis?
C6H12O6 ---- 4ATP + 2NADH + 2 Pyruvate
Where is pyruvate moved after glycolysis?
Into mitochondria by AT
What are stuctures in mitochondria?
Matrix - space within membrane. Contain enzymes and DNA
Cristae - folded membrane, SA for oxidative phosphorylation
Outer Mitochondrial space - creates cellular compartments for aerobic
Inter membrane Space - where protons are pumped
Inner mitochondrial membrane - contain electron transport chain
What does oxidative decarboxylation take place?
What enzyme removes CO2 from pyruvate?
What other molecule is removed when CO2 is removed?
H which then reduced NAD
What molecule is made when CO2 is removed from pyruvate?
What is the final product of the link reaction?
Acetyl Coenzyme A
Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
What are products of krebs cycle?
How many carbons are in citric acid?
How many carbons are in oxaloacetate?
What are the stages of the krebs cycle?
1. Acetyl CoA combine with oxaloacetate
- this releases CoA
- makes citrate
2. Citrate is converted back to oxaloacetate
-2 CO2 release
3. One molecule ATP made
How many ATP molecules are produced from one molecule of glucose in krebs cycle?
2 as each pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to molecule of acetyl CoA which is then used in Krebs
What is krebs cyle?
Substrate level phosphorylation
What is the penultimate stage of respiration?
Where is the electron transport chain?
inner membrane of mitochondria
What are protein carriers called?
What are the role of NADH and FADH2?
To release protons and an electron
What chemical reaction take place between electron and cytochrome?
What is the role of electron pairs in the electron transport chain
They move down chain and provide energy to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
What reaction occurs at the end of the chain?
e- + 2H + O --- H2O
How does the final stage of respiration produce ATP
Protons are pumped to inter membrane space which produces electrochemical gradient
Protons then moved back down gradient through membrane bound enzyme
This acts as ATPase
Movement is called chemiosmosis
How many molecules of NADH and FADH2 are produced in krebs
What happens to the citric acid to produce oxaloacetate
Dehydrogenation and decarboxylated
What is the definition of substrate level phosphorylation
Metabollic reaction that results in production of ATP from another phosphorylated molecule
What is the definition of a metabolic pathway
A sequence of chemical reactions undergone by a compound
How do weed killers effect plants?
Interfere with electron transport chain which means calvin cycle cant so no glucose is produced
What kind of respiration produces ethanol as product
What products are produced from aerobic respiration
CO2 and H2O
How does cyanide effect respiration
Prevent pyruvate entering mitochondria
Can glucose enter mitochondria
What is meant by respiratory substrate
Biological molecules that is broken down to release potential chemical energy
What is equation for RQ
Volume of CO2 released
Volume of O2 absorbed
How many molecules of NAD are released in krebs
What enzyme enables NAD to release hydrogens
How does alcohol effect respiration
Liver produces enzymes to detoxify alcohol but require NAD
This means less available NAD to be reduced during glycolysis, link and krebs
Why are lipids good respiratory substrates
Release twice as much energy per g as have high amount of carbon - hydrogen bonds
What is lactate oxidised to
What happens to Hydrogen in the inner membrane
split into protons and electrons
What is the final electron acceptor in electron transport chain
What is formed at the end of the electron transport chain
How many molecules of ATP does anaerobic respiration produce
What is an obligate anaerobes
organisms that cant survive in oxygen
Whats an example of an obligate anaerobe
What is the term for an organism that can respire anaerobically and aerobically
What is a facultative anaerobe
Respire aerobically and anaerobically
Whats an obligate anaerobe
Only respire using oxygen
Are all cells falculative anaerobes
No - only some and for short amount of time
What is term for organism that only makes ATP with oxygen
What is definition of anaerobic respiration
When organic compounds are broken down into simple inorganic without oxygen
Is the electron transport chain involved in anaerobic respiration
What is products of anaerobic respiration in plants and yeast
Ethanol and CO2
What is product of anaerobic respiration in animals
What is product of lactate fermentation
Lactic acid from pyruvate
How is lactic acid made in anaerobic respiration
Pyruvate acts as electron acceptor fromNADH
What catalyses reaction in anaerobic respiration
Where is lactate converted to glucose
What happens to lactic to acid to detoxify it
Converted to glucose in liver but build requires oxygen
What is oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen required to convert lactic acid to glucose in liver
Why cant lactate fermentation occur all time
Not enough ATP produced
Accumulation of lactic acid cause rise in PH which denatures protein
What is aim of fitness
To increase blood supply to remove lactic acid faster
What is equation for anaerobic respiration
pyruvate + H ----- Lactate
What is produced from alcoholic fermentation
What is produced when CO2 is removed from pyruvate
What is produced when H is added to ethanal
In alcoholic fermentation what does the hydrogen from NAD reduce
What is product from alcoholic fermentation
pyruvate - CO2 --- ethanal
Ethanal + H (NAD - H) ---- ethanol
What are triglycerides hydrolysed to
Fatty acids and glycerol
What happens to glycerol when being used as respiratory substrate
Undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to pyruvate
What are steps of triglycerides when used as respiratory substrate
Triglyceride ---- fatty acid and glycerol
Glycerol ---- pyruvate
pyruvate --- acetyl
acetyl + coenzyme a --- acetyl coenzyme a
How many molecules of ATP produced from one molecule of triglycerides
Why do triglycerides have higher yield of ATP
Higher concentration of C-H bonds
What is RQ if lipid
What is RQ of alcohol
What is RQ of carb and protein