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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (84):
1

Whats the formula for respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------ 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy

2

What is the definition of respiration?

The release of chemical potential energy from organic molecules

3

What is ATP

Phosphorylated nucleotide with 3 phosphate

4

What is the first stage of respiration?

Glycolysis

5

What are the stages of glycolysis

1. Phosphorylation
- becomes bisphosphate
-requires 2 ATP

2. Lyis
- split hexose bisphosphate to triose phosphate

3. Phosphorylation
- go from triose phosphate to triose bisphosphate

4. Oxidation
- triose bisphosphate oxidised to pyruvate
- Hydrogen is removed which is done by dehydrogenase
- H reduced NAD

6

Where does glycolysis take place?

Cytoplasm

7

Is glycolysis anaerobic or aerobic?

Both

8

Whats the equation for glycolysis?

C6H12O6 ---- 4ATP + 2NADH + 2 Pyruvate

9

Where is pyruvate moved after glycolysis?

Into mitochondria by AT

10

What are stuctures in mitochondria?

Matrix - space within membrane. Contain enzymes and DNA

Cristae - folded membrane, SA for oxidative phosphorylation

Outer Mitochondrial space - creates cellular compartments for aerobic

Inter membrane Space - where protons are pumped

Inner mitochondrial membrane - contain electron transport chain


11

What does oxidative decarboxylation take place?

In matrix

12

What enzyme removes CO2 from pyruvate?

Decarboxylase

13

What other molecule is removed when CO2 is removed?

H which then reduced NAD

14

What molecule is made when CO2 is removed from pyruvate?

Acetyl

15

What is the final product of the link reaction?

Acetyl Coenzyme A

16

Where does the Krebs cycle take place?

Matrix

17

What are products of krebs cycle?

oxaloacetate

18

How many carbons are in citric acid?

6C

19

How many carbons are in oxaloacetate?

4C

20

What are the stages of the krebs cycle?

1. Acetyl CoA combine with oxaloacetate
- this releases CoA
- makes citrate

2. Citrate is converted back to oxaloacetate
-2 CO2 release
-3NADH made
-FADH2 made

3. One molecule ATP made

21

How many ATP molecules are produced from one molecule of glucose in krebs cycle?

2 as each pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to molecule of acetyl CoA which is then used in Krebs

22

What is krebs cyle?

Substrate level phosphorylation

23

What is the penultimate stage of respiration?

Oxidative phosphorylation

24

Where is the electron transport chain?

inner membrane of mitochondria

25

What are protein carriers called?

cytochrome

26

What are the role of NADH and FADH2?

To release protons and an electron

27

What chemical reaction take place between electron and cytochrome?

Reduction

28

What is the role of electron pairs in the electron transport chain

They move down chain and provide energy to phosphorylate ADP to ATP

29

What reaction occurs at the end of the chain?

e- + 2H + O --- H2O

30

How does the final stage of respiration produce ATP

Protons are pumped to inter membrane space which produces electrochemical gradient

Protons then moved back down gradient through membrane bound enzyme

This acts as ATPase

Movement is called chemiosmosis

31

How many molecules of NADH and FADH2 are produced in krebs

3 NADH

FADH2

32

What happens to the citric acid to produce oxaloacetate

Dehydrogenation and decarboxylated

33

What is the definition of substrate level phosphorylation

Metabollic reaction that results in production of ATP from another phosphorylated molecule

34

What is the definition of a metabolic pathway

A sequence of chemical reactions undergone by a compound

35

How do weed killers effect plants?

Interfere with electron transport chain which means calvin cycle cant so no glucose is produced

36

What kind of respiration produces ethanol as product

Anaerobic respiration

37

What products are produced from aerobic respiration

CO2 and H2O

38

How does cyanide effect respiration

Prevent pyruvate entering mitochondria

39

Can glucose enter mitochondria

No

40

What is meant by respiratory substrate

Biological molecules that is broken down to release potential chemical energy

41

What is equation for RQ

Volume of CO2 released
------------------------
Volume of O2 absorbed

42

How many molecules of NAD are released in krebs

3

43

What enzyme enables NAD to release hydrogens

NADH dehydrogenase

44

How does alcohol effect respiration

Liver produces enzymes to detoxify alcohol but require NAD

This means less available NAD to be reduced during glycolysis, link and krebs

45

Why are lipids good respiratory substrates

Release twice as much energy per g as have high amount of carbon - hydrogen bonds

46

What is lactate oxidised to

pyruvate

47

What happens to Hydrogen in the inner membrane

split into protons and electrons

48

What is the final electron acceptor in electron transport chain

Oxygen

49

What is formed at the end of the electron transport chain

Water

50

How many molecules of ATP does anaerobic respiration produce

2

51

What is an obligate anaerobes

organisms that cant survive in oxygen

52

Whats an example of an obligate anaerobe

Prokaryotes

53

What is the term for an organism that can respire anaerobically and aerobically

Facultative anaerobes

54

What is a facultative anaerobe

Respire aerobically and anaerobically

55

Whats an obligate anaerobe

Only respire using oxygen

56

Are all cells falculative anaerobes

No - only some and for short amount of time

57

What is term for organism that only makes ATP with oxygen

Obligate organisms

58

What is definition of anaerobic respiration

When organic compounds are broken down into simple inorganic without oxygen

59

Is the electron transport chain involved in anaerobic respiration

No

60

What is products of anaerobic respiration in plants and yeast

Ethanol and CO2

61

What is product of anaerobic respiration in animals

Lactate

62

What is product of lactate fermentation

Lactic acid from pyruvate

63

How is lactic acid made in anaerobic respiration

Pyruvate acts as electron acceptor fromNADH

64

What catalyses reaction in anaerobic respiration

lactate dehydrogenase

65

Where is lactate converted to glucose

Liver

66

What happens to lactic to acid to detoxify it

Converted to glucose in liver but build requires oxygen

67

What is oxygen debt

The amount of oxygen required to convert lactic acid to glucose in liver

68

Why cant lactate fermentation occur all time

Not enough ATP produced

Accumulation of lactic acid cause rise in PH which denatures protein

69

What is aim of fitness

To increase blood supply to remove lactic acid faster

70

What is equation for anaerobic respiration

pyruvate + H ----- Lactate

71

What is produced from alcoholic fermentation

Ethanol

72

What is produced when CO2 is removed from pyruvate

Ethanal

73

What is produced when H is added to ethanal

Ethanol

74

In alcoholic fermentation what does the hydrogen from NAD reduce

Ethanal

75

What is product from alcoholic fermentation

pyruvate - CO2 --- ethanal

Ethanal + H (NAD - H) ---- ethanol

76

What are triglycerides hydrolysed to

Fatty acids and glycerol

77

What happens to glycerol when being used as respiratory substrate

Undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to pyruvate

78

What are steps of triglycerides when used as respiratory substrate

Triglyceride ---- fatty acid and glycerol

Glycerol ---- pyruvate

pyruvate --- acetyl

acetyl + coenzyme a --- acetyl coenzyme a

79

How many molecules of ATP produced from one molecule of triglycerides

500

80

Why do triglycerides have higher yield of ATP

Higher concentration of C-H bonds

81

What is RQ if lipid

0.7

82

What is RQ of alcohol

0.9

83

What is RQ of carb and protein

1

84

What is order of RQ from high to low

Lipid

Alcohol

Carbohydrate and protein