13: Common drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular Week 1 & 2 2016/17 > 13: Common drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 13: Common drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease Deck (44)
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1
Q

Broadly, which classes of drugs are used to treat hypertension?

A

Diuretics

Beta blockers

Vasodilators

2
Q

What are diuretics used to treat?

A

Hypertension

Heart failure

3
Q

What are beta blockers used to treat?

A

Hypertension

Angina

Heart failure (mid-long term)

4
Q

What do diuretic drugs do?

A

Block Nareabsorption into the kidneys

so more fluid is secreted and the plasma volume decreases

5
Q

Name a thiazide diuretic - what are they used to treat?

A

Bendrofluazide

Hypertension

6
Q

Name a loop diuretic - what are they used to treat?

A

Furosemide

Heart failure

7
Q

What are stronger - thiazide diuretics or loop diuretics?

A

Loop diuretics (e.g furosemide)

8
Q

Name two side-effects of diuretic drugs.

A

Hypokalaemia - tiredness

Arrythmia

Hyperglycaemia

Increased uric acid - gout

Impotence

9
Q

What do beta blockers do?

A

Block ß1​ and ß2 adrenoceptors

10
Q

Name a beta blocker which only blocks ß1​ adrenoceptors (cardioselective).

A

Atenolol

11
Q

Atenolol is a cardioselective beta blocker. What does this mean?

A

Only blocks ß1 adrenoceptors.

12
Q

What conditions can atenolol be used to treat?

A

Angina

Hypertension

Heart failure

13
Q

What are non-selective beta blockers?

A

Block both ß1 and ß2 adrenoceptors

14
Q

Name an example of a non-selective beta blocker.

A

Propanolol

15
Q

What is propranolol used to treat?

A

Thyrotoxicosis

16
Q

In which case should beta blockers NOT be used?

A

If the patient has asthma

17
Q

What are the side effects of beta blockers?

A

Fatigue

Heart failure in the short term

Cold peripheries

18
Q

Name the two-types of calcium antagonist.

A

Dihydropyridines

Non-dihydropyridines

19
Q

Name an example of a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist.

A

Amlodipine

20
Q

What is amlodipine? What is it used to treat?

A

Dihydropyridine calcium antagonist

Hypertension and angina

21
Q

What is a common side effect of amlodipine?

A

Ankle oedema

22
Q

Name an example of a non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist.

 

A

Verapamil

23
Q

What conditions can non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists be used to treat?

A

Hypertension

Angina

Supraventricular arrhythmias

24
Q

The use of verapamil with ___ ___ should be avoided.

A

beta blockers

25
Q

What do alpha blockers do?

A

Block alpha adrenoceptors to cause vasodilation

26
Q

Name an example of an alpha blocker.

A

Doxazosin

27
Q

What are alpha blockers used to treat?

A

Hypertension

Prostatic hypertrophy

28
Q

Give an example of an alpha blocker side effect.

A

Postural hypotension

29
Q

What does an ACE inhibitor do?

A

Blocks conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II

30
Q

Name an example of an ACE inhibitor.

A

Lisinopril

31
Q

When would an ACE inhibitor be used?

A

Hypertension

Heart failure

32
Q

When shouldn't an ACE inhibitor be used to treat someone with hypertension / heart failure?

A

Pregnant woman

33
Q

Name an angiotensin receptor blocker.

A

Losartan

34
Q

Name a nitrate drug used to treat cardiovascular disease.

A

Isosorbide mononitrate

GTN spray

35
Q

What would a nitrate be used to treat?

A

Angina

Acute heart failure

36
Q

How many hours a day should a nitrate user be deprived of the drug to avoid tolerance?

A

8 hours per day

37
Q

Name an antiplatelet agent.

A

Aspirin

Clopidogrel

Ticagrelor

Prasugrel

38
Q

When would an antiplatelet agent be used?

A

Angina

Acute MI

39
Q

Name two anticoagulant drugs.

A

Heparin (IV)

Warfarin (oral)

Rivaroxaban

Dabigatran

40
Q

When would an anticoagulant drug be used?

 

A

Deep vein thrombosis

Pulmonary embolism

NSTEMI

Atrial fibrillation

41
Q

Name an anticholesterol drug.

 

A

Simvastatin

42
Q

Name two anti-arrhythmic drugs.

A

Adenosine

Amiodarone

Beta blockers

Flecainide

43
Q

What does digoxin do?

A

Block AV node conduction - causes a degree of AV node delay, reduces heart rate

44
Q

What would digoxin be used to treat?

A

Heart failure with atrial fibrillation