Broadly, which classes of drugs are used to treat hypertension?
What are diuretics used to treat?
What are beta blockers used to treat?
Heart failure (mid-long term)
What do diuretic drugs do?
Block Na+ reabsorption into the kidneys
so more fluid is secreted and the plasma volume decreases
Name a thiazide diuretic - what are they used to treat?
Name a loop diuretic - what are they used to treat?
What are stronger - thiazide diuretics or loop diuretics?
Loop diuretics (e.g furosemide)
Name two side-effects of diuretic drugs.
Hypokalaemia - tiredness
Increased uric acid - gout
What do beta blockers do?
Block ß1 and ß2 adrenoceptors
Name a beta blocker which only blocks ß1 adrenoceptors (cardioselective).
Atenolol is a cardioselective beta blocker. What does this mean?
Only blocks ß1 adrenoceptors.
What conditions can atenolol be used to treat?
What are non-selective beta blockers?
Block both ß1 and ß2 adrenoceptors
Name an example of a non-selective beta blocker.
What is propranolol used to treat?
In which case should beta blockers NOT be used?
If the patient has asthma
What are the side effects of beta blockers?
Heart failure in the short term
Name the two-types of calcium antagonist.
Name an example of a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist.
What is amlodipine? What is it used to treat?
Dihydropyridine calcium antagonist
Hypertension and angina
What is a common side effect of amlodipine?
Name an example of a non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist.
What conditions can non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists be used to treat?
The use of verapamil with ___ ___ should be avoided.
What do alpha blockers do?
Block alpha adrenoceptors to cause vasodilation
Name an example of an alpha blocker.
What are alpha blockers used to treat?
Give an example of an alpha blocker side effect.
What does an ACE inhibitor do?
Blocks conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II
Name an example of an ACE inhibitor.
When would an ACE inhibitor be used?
When shouldn't an ACE inhibitor be used to treat someone with hypertension / heart failure?
Name an angiotensin receptor blocker.
Name a nitrate drug used to treat cardiovascular disease.
What would a nitrate be used to treat?
Acute heart failure
How many hours a day should a nitrate user be deprived of the drug to avoid tolerance?
8 hours per day
Name an antiplatelet agent.
When would an antiplatelet agent be used?
Name two anticoagulant drugs.
When would an anticoagulant drug be used?
Deep vein thrombosis
Name an anticholesterol drug.
Name two anti-arrhythmic drugs.
What does digoxin do?
Block AV node conduction - causes a degree of AV node delay, reduces heart rate
What would digoxin be used to treat?
Heart failure with atrial fibrillation