What does sympathetic stimulation do to the heart?
Increases heart rate
Increases force of contraction
What does parasympathetic stimulation do to the heart?
Reduces heart rate
(note that it has no effect on force of contraction)
How do pre-synaptic fibres reach the sympathetic chain from the brain?
How do post-synaptic sympathetic fibres reach the heart?
The sympathetic innervation of the heart is (unilateral / bilateral).
How do parasympathetic signals travel to the heart?
What nerve exerts a continous background force on the heart to slow HR?
What is this force called?
What remnant of the ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary trunk to the arch of the aorta?