15: Cardiovascular Histology Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular Week 1 & 2 2016/17 > 15: Cardiovascular Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 15: Cardiovascular Histology Deck (38)
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1
Q

What two systems make up the circulatory system?

A

Cardiovascular system - heart, arteries, capillaries and veins

Lymphatic system

2
Q

Where is 65% of the body's blood found?

A

Peripheral veins

3
Q

Name the three fundamental layers of blood vessels, in order of inner ► outer layer.

A

Inner = tunica intima

Middle = tunica media

Outer = tunica adventitia

4
Q

What name is given to the single layer of squamous epithelial cells lining the tunica intima of blood vessels?

A

ENDOthelial cells, or the endothelium

5
Q

What is the tunica media composed of?

A

Single layer of endothelial cells

Basal lamina

Thin layer of connective tissue

6
Q

What is the tunica media predominantly made up of?

A

Smooth muscle

7
Q

What is the tunica adventitia made up of?

A

Connective tissue

8
Q

The very largest arteries in the body are also known as ___ arteries.

A

elastic

9
Q

Name an elastic artery found in the body.

A

Aorta

10
Q

Why is the aorta termed an elastic artery?

A

It has many sheets of elastic fibres which provide elastic recoil

11
Q

In large arteries, the vessles have themselves a blood supply - what is this supply called?

A

Vasa vasorum

12
Q

You can tell that the vessels are progressing from arteries to veins because the amount of ___ ___ decreases

A

smooth muscle

13
Q

Capillaries are often composed of just a single layer of ___ cells and a basal lamina.

A

endothelial

14
Q

What is the name given to cells found at intervals outside the basal lamina of capillaries?

A

Pericytes

15
Q

What are pericytes?

A

Connective tissue cells with contractile properties

found at intervals outside the basal lamina of capillaries

16
Q

Name the three types of capillary found in humans.

A

Continous capillary

Fenestrated capillary

Sinusoidal / discontinuous capillary

17
Q

Continous capillaries are found most / least commonly in the body.

A

most

18
Q

Why fenestrated capillaries given that name?

A

Small pores in vessel wall

19
Q

Where are fenestrated capillaries found?

A

Gut mucosa

Endocrine glands

Kidney glomeruli

20
Q

Sinusoidal capillaries lack a ___ ___.

A

basal lamina

21
Q

What can pass through the large gaps found in sinusoidal capillaries?

A

Macromolecules (even some cells)

22
Q

Where are sinusoidal capillaries found?

A

Liver

Spleen

Bone marrow

23
Q

Which structures, found in veins, are inward extensions of the tunica intima?

A

Valves

24
Q

Name the three layers of the heart (superficial to deep).

A

Epicardium (or visceral serous pericardium)

Myocardium

Endocardium

25
Q

How can cardiac muscle cells be differentiated from skeletal muscle cells?

A

Cardiac muscle cells tend to have a single, central nucleus (sometimes two)

Skeletal muscle cells have tons of nuclei clustered to one side of the cell

26
Q

In which cells are intercalated discs found?

What is their function?

A

Cardiac muscle cells (cardiac myocytes)

Provide adhesion - allow tension to travel from cell-to-cell during contraction

27
Q

Name three structures found within the intercalated discs of cardiac myocytes.

A

Desmosomes 

Adherent junctions

Gap junctions

28
Q

The epicardium of the heart has a single layer of flattened epithelium - what is this tissue called?

A

Mesothelium

29
Q

Name the three layers of the pericardium

A

Fibrous pericardium

Parietal serous pericardium

Visceral serous pericardium

30
Q

What is found in the pericardial cavity, and what function does it serve?

A

Pericardial fluid

Provides lubrication for heart movement

31
Q

What is found on the outer part of heart valves?

A

Outer endothelial layer with basal lamina

32
Q

What name is given to the core of dense connective tissue found within heart valves?

A

Lamina fibrosa

33
Q

Which structures anchor the leaflets of the atrioventricular valves to the muscles in the walls of the ventricles?

What are these muscles called?

A

Chordae tendinae

Papillary muscles

34
Q

There are three types of cardiac myocyte - what are they called?

A

Contractile cells (99%)

Pacemaker cells

Conducting cells

35
Q

Pacemaker cells found in the AV node can be distinguised from other cardiac cells by their ___ appearance.

A

pale

36
Q

The Purkinje fibres are much ___ than other cardiac muscle cells.

A

larger

37
Q

Like pacemaker cells found in the AV node, Purkinje fibres also appear very ___ under the microscope.

A

pale

38
Q

Lymphatic vessels drain tissue fluid and return it to veins - where?

A

In the base of the neck