10: Clinically relevant anatomy of the heart Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular Week 1 & 2 2016/17 > 10: Clinically relevant anatomy of the heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10: Clinically relevant anatomy of the heart Deck (48)
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1
Q

A bit off topic, but what are the components of the hilum (root) of the lung?

A

Pulmonary artery

Main bronchus

Pulmonary veins

Pulmonary lymphatics and bronchopulmonary lymph nodes

Pulmonary visceral afferents & autonomic motor nerves

2
Q

What do pulmonary visceral afferents do?

A

Refer pain signals from the lungs BACK to the central nervous system

3
Q

Where in the mediastinum is the heart found?

A

Middle mediastinum

4
Q

Where, relative to the roots of the lung, are the phrenic nerves found?

A

Anterior to the roots of the lung

5
Q

Where, relative to the pericardium, are the phrenic nerves found?

A

Descending across the lateral borders of the pericardium

6
Q

The phrenic nerves are commonly confused with the ___ ___.

A

vagus nerves.

7
Q

Relative to the roots of the lungs, where are the vagus nerves found?

A

Posterior to the roots of the lungs

8
Q

The phrenic nerves are branches of which spinal nerve(s)?

A

C3, C4 and C5

(Remember - C345 keep the diaphraghm alive.)

9
Q

Parietal serous pericardium

Parietal visceral pericardium

Fibrous pericardium

Arrange in the correct order (superficial to deep).

A
10
Q

What is the name of the space between the two layers of serous pericardium?

A

Pericardial cavity

11
Q

What is another name for the visceral serous pericardium?

A

Epicardium

12
Q

What does the visceral serous pericardium / epicardium secrete? What is its function?

A

Pericardial fluid

Acts as a lubricant.

13
Q

What is the name given to the clinical condition in which the pericardial cavity fills with blood?

A

Haemopericardium

14
Q

What is the consequence of haemopericardium on heart contraction?

A

Cardiac contraction is prevented

15
Q

Haemopericardium can prevent cardiac contraction. What is this condition called?

A

Cardiac tamponade

16
Q

What is pericardiocentesis?

A

Drainage of fluid from the pericardial cavity

17
Q

What is the "bare area" of pericardium?

A

Area in which there is no overlying pleura, reducing the possibility of accidently causing a pneumothorax during pericardiocentesis

18
Q

What name is given to the space within the pericardial cavity, found posterosuperiorly?

A

Transverse pericardial sinus

19
Q

Describe the position of the transverse pericardial sinus in relation to the ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava.

A

Posterior to ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

Anterior to SVC

20
Q

How many pulmonary veins emerge from the right and left posterior surfaces of the heart?

A

2 at each side

21
Q

Name the three surfaces of the heart.

A

Anterior (sternocostal) surface

Base (posterior) surface

Inferior (diaphragmatic) surface

22
Q

Name the two borders of the heart.

A

Right border

Left (lateral) border

23
Q

Where is the apex of the heart usually found?

A

Left side, 5th intercostal space, mid-clavicular line

24
Q

What is the clinical name given to cardiac enlargement?

A

Cardiomegaly

25
Q

What is cardiomegaly?

A

Cardiac enlargement

26
Q

Cardiomegaly often shifts the apex beat in which direction?

A

Further to the left

27
Q

Name the veins (blue structures) on the left-hand side of this picture.

A

Right internal jugular vein

Right subclavian vein

Right brachiocephalic vein

Left brachiocephalic vein

Superior vena cava

Remember the coronary sinus drains into the SVC just before it enters the right atrium

28
Q

The jugular veins are found in the neck. What are their arterial equivalents?

A

Carotid arteries

29
Q

What are the "ear-like" structures found on the right and left atrial surfaces of the heart?

A

Auricles

30
Q

Where is the right coronary artery found?

A

In the coronary groove

(Boundary between right atrium and right atrium, surface marking for the tricuspid valve)

31
Q

Almost as soon as it comes off the ascending aorta, the left coronary artery bifurcates - what branch is found on the anterior surface of the heart?

A

Left anterior descending artery (LAD) / anterior interventricular artery

32
Q

Where on the anterior surface of the heart, is the left anterior descending artery found?

A

Anterior interventricular groove

33
Q

Where is the posterior interventricular groove found?

A

Base of the heart, separating the left and right ventricles

Carries the posterior interventricular artery, a branch of the left coronary artery

34
Q

What is the coronary sinus?

A

Short venous conduit

Returns deoxygenated blood from the cardiac veins to the right atrium

35
Q

What is the azygous vein?

A

Carries deoxygenated blood from the posterior chest wall to the superior vena cava

36
Q

What are the first branches to come off the aorta?

A

Right and left coronary arteries

37
Q

What are the coronary arteries?

A

Arterial blood supply to the epicardium and myocardium

38
Q

Name a branch of the right coronary artery.

A

Right marginal artery

39
Q

Which branch of the left coronary artery anastomoses and joins the right and left coronary arteries?

A

Circumflex artery

40
Q

A ___ divides the heart into a right and left side.

A

septum

41
Q

Name the two components of the septum which splits the heart in two.

A

Interatrial septum

Interventricular septum

42
Q

___ ___ allow mixing of arterial and venous blood in the heart.

A

Septal defects

43
Q

Mixing arterial and venous blood reduces the oxygen content of systemic arterial blood - what is this condition called?

A

Hypoxaemia

44
Q

The right atrium has holes for three vessels - what are these vessels called?

A

Superior vena cava

Inferior vena cava

Coronary sinus

45
Q

During normal embryological development, the ___ ___ should close to form the ___ ___.

A

foramen ovale oval fossa

46
Q

What is the name of the differentiation tissue between the rough, muscular auricle and the smooth atrial wall?

A

Crista terminalis

47
Q

The tricuspid and mitral valves have a different design to the pulmonary and aortic valves. What are these two designs called?

A

Leaflet design (AV valves)

Semilunar valve (pulmonary & aortic valves)

48
Q

Which muscles pull the tendinous cords resulting in the closure of valves?

A

Papillary muscles