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Flashcards in Ground Cover Fire Fighting for Structural Firefighters Deck (371)
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1
Q

What is the backbone of the fire suppression effort?

A

Fire crews.

2
Q

The Terra Torch maybe installed in the back of a pickup truck, trailer, boat or heavy equipment and is effective in?

A

All fuels especially brush and moist fuels due to its longer residence time.

3
Q

What kind of tactics should be used when fire is more than 100 feet from power lines?

A

Normal tactics.

4
Q

Indirect attack is generally considered more dangerous than direct attack because?

A

More fire entrapments and fatalities occur during indirect attacks.

5
Q

A Type 3 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?

A

150gpm.

6
Q

The most common hand cutting tools for wildland firefighting are?

A

Axes, Pulaskis, Brush Hooks, Sandviks.

7
Q

FFs will improve their chance of survival if their deployed shelter?

A

Will not be exposed to direct flame.

8
Q

If you must leave in a hurry abandon the hose and take only the ____.

A

Fittings.

9
Q

On actively burning ground fires where long hose lays are needed at least ____ attack hose must be used to minimize friction loss and deliver maximum volume.

A

1 1/2”.

10
Q

What is the definition of a swamper?

A

Worker who helps clear away brush, limbs and small trees.

11
Q

Factors affecting ground cover fuels?

A

Fuel size (lighter fuels burn faster)
Compactness (tightly compacted fuels burn slower)
Continuity (closely spaced fuels spread faster)
Volume (amount of fuel present)
Fuel moisture content (less moisture ignites more easily)

12
Q

Can two handcrews work effectively in tandem the same way as two engines?

A

Although progress may be slower they are no less effective.

13
Q

When the two layers of the fire shelter are sown together the ____ between them provides additional insulation.

A

Air gap.

14
Q

When constructing firelines crew members typically walk and work ___ apart for safety.

A

10 feet.

15
Q

Class A fire hydrant cap color?

A

Green.

16
Q

Hand crews serve as the ____ of ground cover fire forces.

A

Infantry.

17
Q

A backpack pump is used as a form of?

A

Portable fire extinguisher that carries plain water or foam.

18
Q

What are the three basic types of ground cover fires based on the type and location of the fuel?

A

Ground fires, surface fires, crown fires.

19
Q

Regardless of the distance between a fire front and the control line all unburned fuel between these two must be?

A

Removed. Usually by backfiring or burning out.

20
Q

What type of attack may be needed to protect structures?

A

Frontal attack.

21
Q

What causes booster lines to be ineffective against medium and high intensity fires?

A

Relatively high friction loss means they may not be able to flow the required quantity of water.

22
Q

A Type 4 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?

A

50gpm.

23
Q

What are the 3 C’s?

A

Communication, coordination and cooperation.

24
Q

What is the outer layer of the fire shelter made of?

A

Woven silica laminated to aluminum foil.

25
Q

Stay at least ____ in front and ____ behind heavy equipment.

A

100 feet and 50 feet.

26
Q

Structural engines can be very effective on large roadside fires by?

A

Being the anchor point for progressive hose lays.

27
Q

When two engines attack in tandem the following occurs?

A

First engine moves along the fireline at a relatively fast pace knocking down a majority of intensity knowing the second engine will be securing the fireline behind it.

28
Q

What is the purpose of an anchor point?

A

To prevent a fire from burning around the end of the control line and outflanking suppression crews.

29
Q

The NCWG Type 2 & 3 tractor plows are classified as?

A

Medium capacity tractor plow.

30
Q

What are the most common inversions in the ground cover fire environment?

A

Nighttime and subsidence.

31
Q

Wise water use is critical to?

A

Structural defense.

32
Q

Fusees are most effective in?

A

Light/dry fuels.

33
Q

____ take a charged hose line into the cab.

A

Do not.

34
Q

Intense fires burning father than ____ from a structure do not transfer enough radiant heat to ignite the structure.

A

100 feet.

35
Q

A water tender used as a refilling point for smaller ground cover apparatus operating remotely from a water supply source also qualifies as?

A

Nurse tender operations.

36
Q

What is the range of the Terra Torch?

A

Approximately 100 feet depending on pump pressure and terrain.

37
Q

What kind of cutting strokes should you perform with hand tools?

A

Short, sharp cutting strokes.

38
Q

A Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?

A

Small 10gpm pump.

39
Q

The NWCG Type 1 tractor plow is classified as?

A

Heavy and largest capacity tractor plow.

40
Q

How long will a typical fusee burn?

A

15-30 minutes.

41
Q

Temperature difference factors?

A

Wind moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.

42
Q

Definition of aspect?

A

The compass direction a slope faces.

43
Q

If an unresolved safety hazard exists or an unsafe act was committed you should also?

A

Document the turn down by submitting either a SAFENET (ground hazard) or SAFECOM (aviation hazard) form.

44
Q

What type of hand tools should have smooth, well maintained handles with sharp cutting edges?

A

Axes
Pulaskis
McLeods
Brush hooks

45
Q

Ground cover fire apparatus also have the ability to ____ while the vehicle is moving.

A

Pump water aka pump and roll.

46
Q

If possible always try to leave one engine to patrol the burned area and assist with?

A

Mop up and security.

47
Q

A Type 1 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in brush per hour.

A

6 chains or 396 feet.

48
Q

How are the parts of a ground cover fire named?

A

For their unique characteristics and locations.

49
Q

Definition of burning out?

A

Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel located between the edge of the fire and the control line.

50
Q

All wheel/4 wheel drive vehicles have superior climbing abilities with their high center of gravity which makes them more susceptible to?

A

Rollover.

51
Q

Ground fires typically burn faster on?

A

Southern exposures.

52
Q

A Type 3 wildland engine has how much 1” hose line?

A

500 feet.

53
Q

What does SEAT stand for?

A

Single engine air tanker.

54
Q

Definition of flame length?

A

Distance between the flame tip and the midpoint of the flame depth at the base of the flame. An indicator of fire intensity.

55
Q

What are the three primary methods used to get water out of water tenders?

A

Pump the water through the fire pump.
Use a pressurized dump through a quick dump discharge.
Unload the water by gravity through a gated dump valve.

56
Q

Width of fireline in sparse surface fuels such as duff or light grass?

A

May only need to be a foot or two wide.

57
Q

What causes subsidence inversions?

A

Large scale sinking of air associated with high pressure systems.

58
Q

Indirect attack is used when?

A

Intensity of fire makes direct attack unsafe. Fire develops long fingers. Not enough time to develop a control line at the fire’s edge.

59
Q

The home ignition zone includes the home and extends a distance of ____ to ____ around the outside perimeter of the house.

A

100 to 200 feet.

60
Q

The steeper the slope?

A

The faster the fire spreads.

61
Q

What kind of fuels react quite rapidly by precipitation since they gain or lose moisture within one hour?

A

Fine fuels.

62
Q

Two most common strategies for dealing with residents?

A

Shelter in place and evacuation.

63
Q

In heavier fuels what members with hand tools lead the crew?

A

Chainsaws, axes or brush hooks lead followed by Pulaskis, Rouge Hoes, McLeods, combi tools and shovels.

64
Q

The pneumatic torch assembly is comprised of?

A

Torch assembly, fuel tank and compressed air cylinder mounted to backpack or ATV.

65
Q

Most modern water systems now use at least ____ diameter pipes for water mains.

A

8 inch.

66
Q

What should be abandoned within 100 feet of transmission lines?

A

Direct attack.

67
Q

A Type 3 wildland engine has a GVWR generally greater than?

A

26,000 pounds.

68
Q

Temperature factors?

A

Affects fuels as result of long term drying.

69
Q

To protect all sides of the structure single jacket forestry hose provides the ____ needed.

A

Mobility.

70
Q

Definition of flanks of a fire?

A

Parts of a fire’s perimeter that are roughly parallel to the main direction of spread.

71
Q

In some agencies structural engines assigned to interface areas commonly carry?

A

Ground cover hose packs and hand tools.

72
Q

A Type 6 wildland engine has a GVWR of?

A

Generally less than 26,000 pounds.

73
Q

The PSD dispenser has a lower operating cost than a?

A

Helitorch.

74
Q

When is a direct attack normally used?

A

On relatively small fires with flame lengths not more than 4 feet and where heat/smoke don’t keep FFs from working at the fire’s edge.

75
Q

Definition of a fire whirl?

A

Spinning vortex column of ascending hot air and gases rising from a fire and carrying aloft smoke, debris and flame. Range in size from one foot to over 500 feet in diameter. Large fire whirls have the intensity of a small tornado.

76
Q

Class A fire hydrant flow rating?

A

1,000-1,499gpm.

77
Q

Definition of fire edge?

A

Boundary of the burned or burning material at any given time.

78
Q

To be effective safety zones should have a radius equal to at least?

A

Four times the flame length.

79
Q

Definition of mobile attack?

A

Suppressing fire along a fire edge by driving mobile apparatus along the perimeter and applying fire streams to knock down the fire. Also called pump and roll.

80
Q

Structural engines where not designed for and should never be deployed?

A

In an off road capacity.

81
Q

Wind definition.

A

Wind is the horizontal movement of air relative to the surface of the earth. Most critical weather element affecting wildland fire behavior by increasing fires oxygen supply and fuel drying.

82
Q

Definition of hotspotting?

A

Checking the spread of fire at points of more rapid spread or special threat.

83
Q

The U.S. Forestry Service has identified several common fire behavior characteristics that have resulted in FF fatalities or near misses called the?

A

Common Denominators of Fire Behavior on Tragedy Fires.

84
Q

Constructing a control line is generally not as taxing on the crews because?

A

They are working away from the heat and smoke at the fire’s edge.

85
Q

A Type 6 wildland engine has a minimum crew of?

A

2.

86
Q

Where were hotshot crews started?

A

In southern California in the late 1940s on the Cleveland and Angeles National Forests.

87
Q

When does size up start?

A

It starts before a call comes in from dispatch and continues throughout the incident.

88
Q

Definition of inversion layer?

A

The layer through which the departure from the usual increase or decrease with altitude of the value of an atmospheric property. The lowest altitude at which the departure is found is called the base of the inversion.

89
Q

How often should fire hydrants be tested to ensure they are operating and all parts are in good working order?

A

At least once a year.

90
Q

A Type 6 wildland engine has how much 1 1/2” hose?

A

300 feet.

91
Q

A Type 2 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in short grass per hour.

A

18 chains or 1,188 feet.

92
Q

Aerial fuels?

A

Suspended and upright fuels, brush over 6’. Physically separated from the ground.

93
Q

If a fire is too intense for a safe and effective frontal attack what is the best alternative?

A

Flank attack.

94
Q

Definition of origin?

A

Point of original ignition of fire.

95
Q

Tractor plows may be ___ or ___.

A

Tracked or rubber tired vehicles.

96
Q

Definition of flanking fire suppression?

A

Attacking a fire by working along the flanks from an anchor point either simultaneously or endeavoring to connect two lines at the head.

97
Q

What has a very strong influence on local winds?

A

Terrain.

98
Q

Greatest upslope flow is generally?

A

Mid afternoon with speeds between 3 and 8mpg. Can be gusty.

99
Q

_____ and _____ also contribute to the intensity of fire spread.

A

Weather and topography.

100
Q

What is an additional to attract the heavy equipment operator’s attention?

A

In addition to hand signals one blast on a police whistle.

101
Q

The three types of water tenders have water tanks capacity ranging from ___ to ___.

A

1,000-5,000 gallons.

102
Q

What must all control lines have?

A

An anchor point.

103
Q

Where can a Type 3 fire engine be found?

A

In a mountainous or rural community.

104
Q

All ground cover firefighting apparatus should meet what NFPA requirements?

A

NFPA 1906 standard for wildland fire apparatus.

105
Q

What do sharp tools reduce the need for with FFs?

A

Reduce the need for FFs to raise sharp hand tools above their heads.

106
Q

Who has the authority to require people to evacuate their homes?

A

Law enforcement.

107
Q

Most firelines vary in width from ___ to ____.

A

A foot to a few yards.

108
Q

What is atmospheric stability?

A

The degree to which vertical motion in the atmosphere is enhanced or suppressed.

109
Q

The Stubby Flares can cause what?

A

Can damage the fired end of the flare and cause more wear and tear on the launcher than #6 loads.

110
Q

In situations where the fuel through which the line is to be cut is primarily dry leaf litter and duff, some agencies use what to construct a fireline?

A

Leaf blowers.

111
Q

A Helitorch is comprised of?

A

Torch assembly, propane, tank, pumps, valves, wiring harness and ignition tip.

112
Q

What is the foundation for decision making the ground cover fire environment?

A

Situational awareness.

113
Q

The NCWG Types 4, 5, & 6 tractor plows are classified as?

A

Light tractor plows with smaller capacity.

114
Q

A Type 6 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?

A

30gpm.

115
Q

Definition of a lookout?

A

Person or location to detect and report fires from a vantage point.

116
Q

Definition of smoldering?

A

Fire burning without visible flame and barely spreading.

117
Q

It is recommended to install a hoseline tee with a valved male branch every ___.

A

200 feet of hose.

118
Q

In North America what exposures receive more of the sun’s direct rays and heat?

A

Full southern exposures.

119
Q

Class AA fire hydrant cap color?

A

Light blue.

120
Q

The three types of water tenders have pumps ranging from ___ to ___.

A

50-300gpm.

121
Q

During the 48 hours it typically takes to mobilize an Incident Management team who often serves as IC and other overhead positions?

A

Smokejumpers.

122
Q

A Type 4 wildland engine has a minimum crew of?

A

2.

123
Q

FFs should also look around when working on the fireline to maintain ____ between themselves and other crew members.

A

10 feet.

124
Q

According to the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) use what kind of flagging for escape routes?

A

Fluorescent pink with the words ESCAPE ROUTE in black with black dots.

125
Q

Definition of a running fire?

A

Behavior of a fire spreading rapidly with a well defined head usually associated with influences of wind and/or slope.

126
Q

Definition of a crown fire?

A

Fire that advances from top to top of trees or shrubs. Driven by intensity of surface fire, slope, spacing of crowns and wind.

127
Q

What are the Standard FF Orders?

A
  1. Keep informed on the weather.
  2. Know what the fire is doing.
  3. Base all actions on current and expected fire behavior.
  4. ID escape and safety routes.
  5. Post lookouts.
  6. Be alert, keep calm, think clearly and act decisively.
  7. Maintain prompt communication.
  8. Give clear instructions and make sure they are understood.
  9. Maintain control of your forces at all times.
  10. Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first.
128
Q

What is a fire crew comprised of?

A

18-20 crew members.
Crew boss.
3 squad bosses.

129
Q

Extreme caution is necessary in driving/operating a vehicle that may weigh as much as?

A

60,000 pounds.

130
Q

An unstable atmosphere is defined as?

A

An atmosphere that encourages upward motion.

131
Q

A stable atmosphere is defined as?

A

An atmosphere that resists upward motion.

132
Q

Definition of slopover?

A

A fire edge that crosses a control line or natural barrier.

133
Q

A good rule to follow is for the landing zone to be ____ the size of the rotor diameter.

A

Two times.

134
Q

There may be as much as a ___ difference between fuels in an open field and fuels under a canopy/

A

60 degree.

135
Q

Flame length of 4-8 feet can be directly attacked with?

A

Mechanical assistance from engines and heavy equipment.

136
Q

Definition of shelter in place?

A

Remaining in a structure or vehicle when a fire moves through.

137
Q

Definition of heel?

A

Rear portion of wildland fire also called the rear.

138
Q

The pneumatic torch uses a mixture of diesel and gas to dispense fuel ___ to ___ and is effective in all fuel types.

A

8 to 20 feet.

139
Q

Definition of the green?

A

Area of unburned fuel.

140
Q

How many crew does each dozer have?

A

Two.

141
Q

A Type 3 wildland engine holds how many gallons in tank?

A

500 gallons.

142
Q

Where is backfiring done?

A

Downwind side of a large fire to take advantage of the natural indraft of the main body of fire.

143
Q

When is mobile attack primarily used?

A

On grass fires in a fast moving direct attack with water or foam.

144
Q

On steep slopes fireline width should be?

A

At least two times the fuel height.

145
Q

What is the primary advantage of a direct attack?

A

FFs are close to or working in the black which may be used as a safety zone.

146
Q

A Type 1 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in short grass per hour.

A

30 chains or 1,980 feet.

147
Q

Where is the PSD most effective?

A

In dry, light, continuous fuels and aquatic areas like marshes or swamps.

148
Q

A Type 6 wildland engine has a tank capacity of?

A

150-400 gallons.

149
Q

If the roof is more than 1/4 involved in windy conditions the structure?

A

Cannot be saved.

150
Q

Fire swatters are sometimes called?

A

Fire flails or flappers.

151
Q

All vehicles must have?

A

A service brake, emergency brake, and parking brake system.

152
Q

How do you extended the hose lay?

A

Shut down the nozzle, clamp the hose, remove the nozzle and attach additional length of hose.

153
Q

Most tractor plows are ____ and more maneuverable than dozers.

A

Smaller.

154
Q

What are the 18 Watchout Situations?

A
  1. Fire not scouted and sized up.
  2. In country not seen in daylight.
  3. Safety zones/escape routes not ID.
  4. Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior.
  5. Uninformed on strategies, tactics and hazards.
  6. Instructions/assignments not clear.
  7. No communication link.
  8. Constructing a line w/o an anchor point.
  9. Building a fireline downhil with fire below.
  10. Attempting frontal assault on fire.
  11. Unburned fuel between you and fire.
  12. Can’t see or in contact with anyone who can see fire.
  13. On hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below.
  14. Weather is getting hotter and drier.
  15. Wind increasing/changing direction.
  16. Getting frequent spot fires across line.
  17. Terrain and fuels make escape difficult.
  18. Taking a nap near the fireline.
155
Q

Definition of parallel attack?

A

Constructed a fireline parallel to the wildland fire’s edge.

156
Q

It is better to flee ____ too soon than ____ too late.

A

5 minutes and 5 seconds.

157
Q

Specifics on locations that will accommodate aircraft size, type or performance are found in?

A

PMS 506: NWCG Interagency Single Engine Airtanker Operations Guide.

158
Q

A Type 4 wildland engine has how much 1” hose line?

A

300 feet.

159
Q

Fusees burn phosphorous at what temp?

A

1,400 degrees F

160
Q

Definition of a booster line?

A

Non collapsible rubber covered, rubber lined hose wound on a reel and mounted on an engine or water tender. Most commonly found in 1/2”, 3/4” and 1” diameters. Used for mop up and extinguishing low intensity fires.

161
Q

The propane torch can be handled or mounted?

A

In the back of a pickup truck or trailer.

162
Q

Where should mobile attacks be made?

A

From the black for safety.

163
Q

Where is water for community use supplied?

A

Natural freshwater sources such as lakes and ponds.

164
Q

Reserve at least ____ gallons of water for engine/crew protection.

A

100.

165
Q

Definition of a control line?

A

Inclusive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated fire edges used to control a fire.

166
Q

One of the most effective and efficient uses of structural fire engines is for?

A

Protection of structures exposed to an approaching ground cover fire.

167
Q

The Power Flame Thrower/Terra Torch is comprised of?

A

Fuel tank, torch assembly, pump, electric propane igniter, and wand.

168
Q

Definition of spot fire/spotting?

A

Fires starting outside the perimeter of main fire typically caused by flying sparks or embers.

169
Q

What is the definition of a frontal attack?

A

Confronts the head of a fire or fingers without an anchor point and can be very dangerous.

170
Q

Regardless of hos a crew is organized they most often work along the line is what is called?

A

Typical tool order.

171
Q

Definition of flank attack?

A

Attacking a fire by working along the flanks from an anchor point.

172
Q

Definition of torching?

A

Burning of the foliage of a single tree or small group of trees from the bottom up.

173
Q

Definition of fireline?

A

Part of a control line that is scraped or dug to the mineral soil. Wildland equivalent of the structural fireground.

174
Q

Definition of a fire shelter?

A

Aluminized cloth tent that offers protection in a fire entrapment situation by reflecting radiant heat and providing a volume of breathable air.

175
Q

What is the purpose of the Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine?

A

Multipurpose unit used for patrol, mop up or initial attack.

176
Q

Flame length of less than 4 feet is susceptible to?

A

Direct attack operations.

177
Q

What is probably the greatest challenge for operating in this environment?

A

Establishing a control and accountability system that works when the IC will have limited if any visual confirmation of where his or her crews are working.

178
Q

Smokejumpers parachute in to approximately ____ wildfires per year in the western US and Alaska.

A

400.

179
Q

Caps and bonnets of individual public hydrants are usually painted a contrasting color to indicate?

A

Flow in gpm to be expected from that hydrant.

180
Q

Class B fire hydrant flow rating?

A

500-999gpm.

181
Q

Operation of the PSD (Plastic Sphere Dispenser) requires?

A

A qualified Plastic Sphere Dispenser Operator (PSDO).

182
Q

Definition of a direct attack?

A

Any treatment applied directly to burning fuel.

183
Q

Safe and efficient line construction by hand crews depends on having?

A

The right tools for the job and using those tools properly.

184
Q

Barriers to fire include many things both ____ and ____.

A

Natural and man made.

185
Q

What are the types of local winds?

A

Slope, upslope, downslope and valley winds.

186
Q

What factors affect structural triage decisions?

A
  1. Structure.
  2. Fuel.
  3. Fire behavior.
  4. Resources.
  5. FF safety.
187
Q

Definition of flame height?

A

Average maximum vertical extension of flames at the leading edge of the fire front.

188
Q

What are scraping hand tools used for?

A

Fireline construction and mop up operations.

189
Q

Firebrands may ignite new fires as far as ____ or more ahead of the main fire.

A

A mile.

190
Q

What is a turn down?

A

Also called a refusal of risk where an individual FF or crew leader has decided that they can’t carry out an assignment as give and is unable to negotiate an alternative solution.

191
Q

Definition of the black?

A

Area burned by wildland fire.

192
Q

What is one of the most common firing devices in use?

A

Drip torch.

193
Q

What is the NFPA for recommended practice for fire flow testing and marking of hydrants?

A

NFPA 291.

194
Q

A Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine has a tank gallon capacity of?

A

50-200 gallons.

195
Q

A Type 3 wildland engine has a minimum crew of?

A

3.

196
Q

Relative humidity can range from?

A

1% (very dry) to 100% (very moist).

197
Q

What is the NFPA standard on protective clothing and equipment for wildland firefighting?

A

NFPA 1977.

198
Q

Never drive up and down slopes exceeding ____ or across slopes exceeding ____.

A

40% and 20%.

199
Q

How do upslope winds develop?

A

As air in valleys, draws and hillsides. Becomes warmer than the air at the top of the slope and begins to rise.

200
Q

Escape routes should be timed considering the ____ on the team.

A

Slowest person.

201
Q

Firing devices are tools that?

A

Allow you to fight fire with fire.

202
Q

What is the minimum work boot requirement for wildland firefighting?

A

8” high laced boots with Vibram type melt resistant soles.

203
Q

Definition of general winds?

A

Large scale, upper level winds caused by high and low pressure systems. Can influence ground cover fire behavior.

204
Q

Definition of a pincer attack?

A

Direct attack around a fire in opposite directions by two or more attack units.

205
Q

Definition of a hand crew?

A

Number of individuals who have been organized and trained and are supervised principally for operational assignments on an incident.

206
Q

Precipitation factors?

A

Largely determines moisture content.

207
Q

Definition of convection?

A

Transfer of heat in an upward vertical motion which can dry and ignite fuels above and adjacent to the fire. Most common visual indicator is a smoke column which consists of hot air, gases, embers and debris.

208
Q

How can you provide positive pressure to help prevent smoke from intruding inside the cab?

A

Partially discharge space SCBA cylinders.

209
Q

What are the three basic fire ground applications for water tenders?

A

Water shuttle ops.
Nurse tender ops.
Fire attack/exposure protection.

210
Q

Wyoming State Statue 35-9-116 states in part:

A

In the event of a hazard of immediate life threatening severity the state fire marshal or the fire chief may order the evacuation of a building or area and may implement emergency measures to protect life and property and remove the hazard.

211
Q

Booster lines are very ____ and highly _____.

A

Durable and maneuverable.

212
Q

For structural protection in fine fuels with low intensity fires ___ or ___ hoselines can provide a mobile and reliable choice.

A

3/4” or 1”.

213
Q

What is the fuel torch mixture?

A

3:1 ratio of diesel to gas.

214
Q

Always maintain a lookout, usually the ____ with the engine.

A

Pump operator.

215
Q

For flame lengths of greater than 8 feet it may require?

A

Indirect or defensive attack strategies.

216
Q

What is the inner layer of the fire shelter made of?

A

Fiberglass laminated to aluminum foil.

217
Q

Definition of a hotshot crew?

A

Type 1 intensively trained fire crew used primarily in hand line construction.

218
Q

Tractor plows pull a plow that is typically ____ wide and cuts a more ____ swath than the blade on most dozers.

A

6 feet and more narrow.

219
Q

What distance should you maintain from transmission towers?

A

35 feet.

220
Q

What is the most effective air direct attack firefighting resource available?

A

Fixed wing aircraft.

221
Q

Surface fire characteristics?

A

Most common type of ground cover fire. Low lying grass, shrubs and other vegetation.

222
Q

Features of a box canyon?

A

React similar to a fire in a wood burning stove or fireplace. Upslope drafts create rapid fire spread up the canyon which is also referred to as the chimney effect.

223
Q

Definition of inversion?

A

Atmospheric inversion. Increase in temperature with increasing height.

224
Q

Definition of a patrol?

A

To detect, prevent and suppress fires along the length of the control line.

225
Q

Engines should be staffed with at least how many personnel?

A

3 including a driver/operator, a nozzle man and one additional FF.

226
Q

How long will flares burn?

A

8 seconds in dry, light and continuous ground fuels.

227
Q

According to NFPA 1977 all equipment used for wildland firefighting must?

A

Be labeled.

228
Q

Do not leave the coupling where they might be run over. Drape the ends of the lines over?

A

Fence, mailbox, etc.

229
Q

Class C fire hydrant flow rating?

A

500gpm or less.

230
Q

Approximately how many smokejumpers are qualified to serve as IC and other overhead positions?

A

250.

231
Q

The foundation for all fire management activities is through?

A

Risk management.

232
Q

Relative humidity factors?

A

Affects dead fuels that gain moisture from surrounding air.

233
Q

Get at least ____ hours of off duty time between shifts.

A

8 hours.

234
Q

What is the SMART acronym for ground cover firefighting?

A

Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time sensitive

235
Q

The fire swatter is a long handled tool with a rubber or neoprene flap shaped in a square with each side ____ to ____ in length.

A

16 to 24 inches.

236
Q

A Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine has a minimum crew of?

A

2.

237
Q

Scattered location of structures in the interface can limit what tactics?

A

Direct attack or burn outs.

238
Q

Definition of precipitation?

A

Liquid or solid water particles that originate in the atmosphere until they become large enough to fall to the earth’s surface.

239
Q

Propane torches are effective in all fuels and most use propane vapor as fuel although some are designed to use?

A

Liquid propane.

240
Q

What is the one lick method of handcrew fireline construction?

A

Progressive line construction where the crew is in a staggered line. Each member takes one stroke (lick) with the tool before moving on one step to repeat the action.

241
Q

____ is a unique nonfire hazard that requires special precautions.

A

Lightning.

242
Q

What are the three most common types of mechanized equipment used in ground cover firefighting?

A

Dozers, tractor plows and road graders.

243
Q

What does all resource typing deal with?

A

Minimums.

244
Q

The most common types of scraping tools used in ground cover firefighting are?

A

Shovels, McLeods, Fire rakes-hoes, Combination tools, Wire brooms.

245
Q

Definition of size up?

A

Ongoing process of observation and evaluation of existing factors used to develop objectives, strategy, and tactics for fire suppression.

246
Q

When operating an apparatus on hill terrain don’t forget to use the ____ to slow down on steep descents.

A

Transmission.

247
Q

A Type 4 wildland engine has how much 1 1/2” hose line?

A

300 feet.

248
Q

Who has the authority to initiate a burnout?

A

The crew boss (supervisor in charge of 16 to 21 FFs) with approval.

249
Q

Where does a drip torch work well?

A

In almost all fuel types.

250
Q

A Type 3 dozer is called a ____ dozer and has a minimum HP of ____.

A

Light dozer 50HP minimum.

251
Q

Where is the tactical water tender best utilized?

A

In the wildland urban interface where large volumes of water and limited resources make it an excellent asset.

252
Q

Definition of radiation?

A

Transfer of heat in straight lines through a gas or vacuum other than by heating of the intervening space.

253
Q

A Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine has how much 1” hose line?

A

200 feet.

254
Q

Type ___ dozers are larger and more capable than Type ___ dozers.

A
  1. 2 and 3.
255
Q

How do you protect yourself from lightning strikes?

A

Drop to your knees and bend forward putting your hands on your thighs.

256
Q

FireQuick is a specialized pistol developed to shoot either ____ or ____ flares.

A

HotShot or Stubby Flares.

257
Q

Definition of indirect attack?

A

Controlling the fire by locating the control line along natural firebreaks some distance from the approaching fire and burning out the intervening fuels.

258
Q

Surface fuels?

A

Needles, twigs, grass and brush up to 6’ tall.

259
Q

A Type 1 dozer is called a ____ dozer and has a minimum HP of ____.

A

Heavy dozer 200HP minimum.

260
Q

The Helitorch requires?

A

Specialized personnel to operate it.

261
Q

Definition of hard line?

A

Booster line.

262
Q

What is the NFPA standard for wildland firefighting professional qualifications?

A

NFPA 1051.

263
Q

Definition of a backfire?

A

Fire set along the inner edge of a control line to consume fuel in the path of a wildland fire and/or change the direction of force of the fire’s convection column.

264
Q

Begin treating the structure ___ to ___ before the expected front begins.

A

10 to 15 minutes.

265
Q

Ground crew members should follow standard FAA hand signals as outline in?

A

FAA AC 91-32B, Safety in and Around Helicopters.

266
Q

What are considered intermediate fuels during structural triage?

A

Any combustibles located near the structure.

267
Q

Drivers/operators should not exceed more than ____ hours of behind the wheel driving.

A

10 hours.

268
Q

___ relative humidity is an indicator of high fire danger.

A

Low.

269
Q

Definition of relative humidity?

A

Amount of moisture in the air. Usually expressed as a percent.

270
Q

Definition of backfiring?

A

Tactic associated with indirect attack. Intentionally setting fire to fuels inside the control line to slow, knock down or contain a rapidly spreading fire.

271
Q

Ground fire characteristics?

A

Burn in layer of dead, organic matter called hummus that covers the soil in forested areas.
Slow moving smoldering fires.
Can go undetected for months before they enter the flaming stage.
Difficult to extinguish due to the composition of fuel.

272
Q

What is a guideline for determining fireline width?

A

Figure for at least 1 1/2 times the height of fuels or 2 1/2 times the height of flames.

273
Q

There are ___ types of winds?

A
  1. General and local.
274
Q

In timber increase your safe working distance around heavy equipment to?

A

2 1/2 times the canopy height.

275
Q

Most hose packs contain?

A

Two 100 foot lengths of 1 1/2” hose with lightweight couplings and one hoseline with a valved male branch.

276
Q

What does the LCES acronym stand for?

A

Lookouts- know where the fire is
Communications- know who is operating around you
Escape routes- know more than one way out of where you are working
Safety zones- know how to quickly get to an area of refuge

277
Q

What are the 3 main influences on ground cover fire behavior?

A

Fuel, weather and topography. With weather being the most significant.

278
Q

Who should operate chainsaws?

A

Only trained and experienced personnel wearing eye pro, hearing protection, gloves and protective chaps.

279
Q

A Type 3 wildland engine has how much 1 1/2” hose line?

A

500 feet.

280
Q

A progressively hose lay consists of?

A

Double shutoff wye valves inserted in the main line at intervals so that lateral lines can be run to permit continuous application of water during the extension of the lay.

281
Q

Structural triage categories?

A

Needs little or no attention for now.

Needs protection, savable.

Cannot be saved.

282
Q

What hand tools used for smothering, raking and scraping may need to be used in light fuels?

A

Swatters, Council Rakes and McLeods.

283
Q

Speed of downslope winds?

A

2 to 5 mph.

284
Q

What is it important to save time and conserve FF energy when constructed a fireline with handcrews only?

A

Making the line only as wide as necessary.

285
Q

Items such as ___ and ___ left in the yard can provide more fuel to the fire.

A

Old cars and trailers.

286
Q

Quick dump piping may be round or square and is generally at least ___ in diameter.

A

8 inches.

287
Q

A Type 6 wildland engine has how much 1” hose?

A

300 feet.

288
Q

Definition of head of a fire?

A

Most rapidly spreading portion of a fire’s perimeter.

289
Q

For hit and run tactics do not become tied down to lengthy supply and attack lines. If possible limit the hoselines to ____ or less.

A

200 feet.

290
Q

A Type 1 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in brush per hour.

A

4 chains or 264 feet.

291
Q

Where are control lines constructed in steep terrain?

A

Along ridgelines.

292
Q

Typical slope wind pattern?

A

During the day upslope and downslope during the night.

293
Q

Who is personally responsible for your safety?

A

You are.

294
Q

Definition of an Anchor Point?

A

Point from which the fireline is begun. Can be natural or man made barrier. Typical anchor points include: roads, lakes, ponds, streams, rock slides and cliffs.

295
Q

In an indirect attack the distance from the control line to the fire’s edge depends on the following?

A

Fire intensity and rate of spread.
Type and volume of fuel.
Topography.
Wind.
Natural barriers.

296
Q

What are the two most common loads for the FireQuick pistol?

A

6 purple-violet box, HotShot flares, Winchester Industrial loads, 22 caliber.

297
Q

For communicating with the flight crew what is used as a last resort and in rare situations?

A

Hand signals.

298
Q

Starting fireline construction from a(n) ____ is critical to FF safety.

A

Anchor point.

299
Q

Definition of a safety zone?

A

Area cleared of flammable materials.

300
Q

Definition of tandem attack?

A

Direct attack made by engines, mechanized equipment, handcrews or aircraft working together along the fire perimeter to achieve greater effectiveness.

301
Q

Definition of creeping?

A

Fire burning with a low flame spreading slowly.

302
Q

Barrel color of all fire hydrants in wildland book?

A

Chrome yellow.

303
Q

According to the USDA Forest Service, what is the hand crew’s main responsibility?

A

Constructing a fireline.

304
Q

Down-valley wind speeds typically range between?

A

5 and 10 mph.

305
Q

The barrels of all public hydrants are usually painted?

A

A highly visible color.

306
Q

Crown fire characteristics?

A

Wind driven, high intensity fires in the tree tops of forested areas. Sometimes caused by ground or surface fires when fire spreads upwards through ladder fuels such as small trees, fallen timber and vines.

307
Q

Class AA fire hydrant flow rating?

A

1500gpm or greater.

308
Q

Ground cover firefighting often requires what kind of vehicle?

A

Rugged, highly maneuverable vehicle that can go where large structural type apparatus cannot go.

309
Q

North and east facing slopes have more shade which causes?

A

Heavier fuels, lower temps, higher humidity and higher fuel moistures.

310
Q

What are the two types of portable water tanks?

A

Square metal framed and round self supporting.

311
Q

Temperature and relative humidity have an ____ relationship.

A

Inverse.

312
Q

Dozers are pirmarily used for?

A

Construction of firelines.

313
Q

Nighttime inversions are easy to identify because they?

A

Trap smoke and gases resulting in poor visibilities in valleys or drainages.

314
Q

A common method of fireline construction by handcrews known as _____ assigns each member a few feet of the line and after completing that portion moving on to another portion of the line.

A

Leapfrogging.

315
Q

What are the most essential elements of successful ground cover firefighting?

A

Competent and confident leadership.

316
Q

What is the propane torch comprised of?

A

Torch assembly, propane cylinder, hose, and regulator or flame adjustment valve.

317
Q

Road graders are also called?

A

Maintainers.

318
Q

What is a progressive hose lay limited by?

A

Friction loss in the hose and the amount of water available to the engine.

319
Q

Topography refers to?

A

The earth’s surface features.

320
Q

A Type 4 wildland engine has a GVWR of?

A

Greater than 26,000 pounds.

321
Q

How much vegetation clearing around LPG storage tanks?

A

30 foot.

322
Q

Deploy two lines, one around each side of the structure or a pair of adjacent structures. The lines must be long enough to?

A

Meet behind the structures.

323
Q

How are firelines constructed?

A

By using hand tools or mechanized equipment such as dozers, graders and tractor plows to remove surface and subsurface fuels down to the mineral soil.

324
Q

All pressure ratings for hydrants in the wildland book?

A

20 psi.

325
Q

A Type 2 dozer is called a ____ dozer and has a minimum HP of ____.

A

Medium dozer 100HP minimum.

326
Q

What size is the Type 4 wildland engine tank?

A

750 gallons or more.

327
Q

All fire departments should have ____ designed to fight the types of fires they confront most frequently.

A

Fire apparatus.

328
Q

Helitorch capabilities?

A

Ignites fuel with higher fuel temperatures but will not burn wet fuels. Can ignite large area in short amount of time.

329
Q

Definition of fingers?

A

Long, narrow extensions of fire projecting from the main body.

330
Q

Up-valley wind speeds range from?

A

Between 10 and 15mph.

331
Q

Class B fire hydrant cap color?

A

Orange.

332
Q

Wire brooms are used for?

A

Leaf litter, grass, grain and moss fires.

333
Q

The Plastic Sphere Dispenser (PSD) is comprised of?

A

Glycol (antifreeze) injection unit that is mounted internally in a helicopter with an external chute.

334
Q

Keep in mind that Type ____ and Type ____ engines may not have the pump capacity or water supply for extensive hose lengths.

A

Type 6 and 7.

335
Q

What do most line of duty deaths result from during ground cover fires?

A

Heart failure.

336
Q

Smaller helicopters carry water in buckets that hold between ____ and ____ gallons of water?

A

100 to 400 gallons.

337
Q

What is the typical tool order in medium fuels?

A

Chainsaws, brush hooks or Sandvigs.

Pulaskis or Rouge Hoes.

Shovels or McLeods.

338
Q

What is the 30/30 rule?

A

When the interval between ground flash and the thunder it produces is less than 30 seconds, FFs should take precautions against being struck continued for 30 minutes after the thundercloud passes.

339
Q

Definition of a perimeter?

A

Entire outer edge of boundary of a fire.

340
Q

The agent most often used to extinguish ground cover fires is?

A

Water.

341
Q

____ is exempt from the Vibram sole requirements.

A

Alaska.

342
Q

Very Pistol/FireQuick are specialized pistols adapted to shoot flares up to?

A

375 feet.

343
Q

When do down-valley winds occur?

A

After midnight.

344
Q

Definition of conduction?

A

Heat transfer through a material from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature.

345
Q

Definition of local winds?

A

Induced by small scale, local differences in air temp and pressure.

346
Q

All Forest Service helicopter operations follow which guidelines?

A

FAA and interagency standards, policies and safety procedures.

347
Q

Where is the blade mounted on road graders?

A

Just forward of the rear wheels.

348
Q

A Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine is on a ____ vehicle chassis?

A

Standard duty.

349
Q

When do downslope winds generally occur?

A

After midnight. Can alter fire behavior from inactive to active in a matter of minutes.

350
Q

Definition of escape route?

A

Preplanned and understood route firefighters take to move to a safety zone or other low risk area. Should be clearly marked/flagged.

351
Q

A staging area is location set up at an incident where resources can be placed while awaiting tactical assignment on a ___ available basis.

A

3 minute.

352
Q

Wind factors?

A

Fans flames for greater intensity. Large fires create their own winds.

353
Q

Definition of evacuation?

A

Organized, phased and supervised withdrawal, dispersal or removal of civilians from potentially dangerous areas.

354
Q

According to the NWCG there are how many types of tractor plows used in ground cover firefighting operations?

A

Six.

355
Q

Definition of hose lay?

A

Arrangement of connected lengths of fire hose and accessories on the ground.

356
Q

Relative humidity levels below 25% are an indicator of?

A

Extreme fire behavior.

357
Q

Firefighters may encounter how many types of inversions?

A
  1. Nighttime (often called radiation), subsidence, frontal and marine.
358
Q

How should hand tools be carried?

A

At the balance point, carried at the side, close to the body and parallel to the ground with blade guards covering the sharp edges.

359
Q

Definition of structural triage?

A

Process of inspecting and classifying structures according to their defensibility based on their situation, construction and the immediately adjacent fuels.

360
Q

Specifications for all structural gear are now contained entirely in NFPA?

A

NFPA 1971.

361
Q

Type 3 and 4 engines are most commonly referred to as ___ or ___ engines because of their lightweight chassis, maneuverability, off road capability and smaller diameter hose.

A

Brush or wildland engines.

362
Q

In short grasses and light fuels a ___ to ___ fireline should halt the advance of the fire.

A

12 to 36 inch.

363
Q

Definition of rate of spread?

A

Relative activity of a fire in extending its horizontal dimensions. Usually expressed in chains or acres per hour.

364
Q

FFs should give what verbal warning when they need to pass close to each other on the line?

A

“Tool coming through!”

365
Q

Definition of an island?

A

Unburned area within fire perimeter.

366
Q

What two elements of the fire triangle are always present where ground cover fire is found?

A

Fuel and oxygen.

367
Q

Type 5, Type 6 and Type 7 engines have at least some fire fighting capability and in many areas are referred to as?

A

Patrols.

368
Q

When do up-valley winds occur?

A

Mid to late afternoon.

369
Q

A habit that all FFs should develop is to continually check their environment by?

A

Look up, look down, look all around.

370
Q

How do ground cover firefighting protocols differ from offensive and defensive modes during structural firefighting?

A

Offensive and defensive modes are often combined when fighting ground cover fires.

371
Q

How long is a chain in length?

A

66 feet.