1.4: Starch, glycogen and cellulose Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.4: Starch, glycogen and cellulose Deck (70):
1

Starch is a polysaccharide that is found in many parts of a plant in the form of small grains.

Especially large amounts occur where?

Especially large amounts of starch occur in:

1. Seeds

2. Storage organs

 

2

Starch is a polysaccharide that is found in many parts of a plant in the form of small grains.

Especially large amounts occur in seeds and storage organs, such as what?

Especially large amounts of starch occur in:

1. Seeds

2. Storage organs, such as potato tubers

 

 

3

Starch is a polysaccharide that is found in many parts of a plant in the form of small grains.

Especially large amounts occur in seeds and storage organs, such as potato tubers.

Starch forms an important component of food and is the major energy source in most diets.

Starch is made up of chains of a-glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds that are formed by condensation reactions.

The chains may be what?

The chains of a-glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds may be:

1. Branched

Or,

2. Unbranched

4

Starch is a polysaccharide that is found in many parts of a plant in the form of small grains.

Especially large amounts occur in seeds and storage organs, such as potato tubers.

Starch forms an important component of food and is the major energy source in most diets.

Starch is made up of chains of a-glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds that are formed by condensation reactions.

The chains may be branched or unbranched.

The unbranched chain is what?

The unbranched chain is wound into a tight coil that makes the molecule very compact

5

The main role of starch is what?

The main role of starch is energy storage

6

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for

7

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't what?

Starch:

1. Is insoluble

2. Therefore doesn't affect water potential

8

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because starch:

1. Is insoluble

2. Therefore doesn't affect water potential

,so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis

9

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because being:

1. Large

2. Insoluble

,starch does not diffuse out of cells

10

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Starch is compact, so what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because starch is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space

11

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Starch is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. When hydrolysed, starch forms what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because when hydrolysed, starch forms a-glucose

12

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Starch is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. When hydrolysed, starch forms a-glucose, which is both what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because when hydrolysed, starch forms a-glucose, which is both:

1. Easily transported

2. Readily used in respiration

13

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Starch is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. When hydrolysed, starch forms a-glucose, which is both easily transported and readily used in respiration.

5. The branched form of starch has many what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because the branched form of starch has many ends

14

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Starch is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. When hydrolysed, starch forms a-glucose, which is both easily transported and readily used in respiration.

5. The branched form of starch has many ends, each of which can be what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because the branched form of starch has many ends, each of which can be acted on by enzymes simultaneously

15

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because:

1. Starch is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being large and insoluble, starch does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Starch is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. When hydrolysed, starch forms a-glucose, which is both easily transported and readily used in respiration.

5. The branched form of starch has many ends, each of which can be acted on by enzymes simultaneously, meaning that what?

The main role of starch is energy storage, something its structure is especially suited for, because the branched form of starch has many ends, each of which can be acted on by enzymes simultaneously, meaning that glucose monomers are released very rapidly

16

Starch is never found where?

Starch is never found in animal cells

17

Starch is never found in animal cells. Instead a similar what, called what, does what?

Instead a similar polysaccharide, called glycogen, serves the same role

18

Glycogen is found where?

Glycogen is found in:

1. Animals

2. Bacteria

19

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never where?

Glycogen is found in:

1. Animals

2. Bacteria

,but never in plant cells

20

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never in plant cells.

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but what?

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but:

1. Has shorter chains

2. Is more highly branched

21

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never in plant cells.

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but has shorter chains and is more highly branched.

It is sometimes called 'animal starch,' because it is what?

Glycogen is sometimes called 'animal starch,' because it is the major carbohydrate storage product of animals

22

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never in plant cells.

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but has shorter chains and is more highly branched.

It is sometimes called 'animal starch,' because it is the major carbohydrate storage product of animals.

In animals, glycogen is stored as what?

In animals, glycogen is stored as small granules

23

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never in plant cells.

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but has shorter chains and is more highly branched.

It is sometimes called 'animal starch,' because it is the major carbohydrate storage product of animals.

In animals, glycogen is stored as small granules, mainly where?

In animals, glycogen is stored as small granules, mainly in the:

1. Muscles

2. Liver

 

24

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never in plant cells.

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but has shorter chains and is more highly branched.

It is sometimes called 'animal starch,' because it is the major carbohydrate storage product of animals.

In animals, glycogen is stored as small granules, mainly in the muscles and the liver.

The mass of carbohydrate that is stored is what?

 

The mass of carbohydrate that is stored is relatively small

25

Glycogen is found in animals and bacteria, but never in plant cells.

Glycogen is very similar in structure to starch, but has shorter chains and is more highly branched.

It is sometimes called 'animal starch,' because it is the major carbohydrate storage product of animals.

In animals, glycogen is stored as small granules, mainly in the muscles and the liver.

The mass of carbohydrate that is stored is relatively small, because what?

The mass of carbohydrate that is stored is relatively small, because fat is the main storage molecule in animals

 

26

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to do what?

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because glycogen:

1. Is insoluble

2. Therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis

27

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, it does not do what?

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells

28

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. It is compact, so what?

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space

29

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. It is more what than starch?

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because glycogen is more highly branched than starch

30

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. It is more highly branched than starch and so has more ends that can be what?

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because glycogen:

1. Is more highly branched than starch

2. So has more ends that can be acted on simultaneously by enzymes

31

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. It is more highly branched than starch and so has more ends that can be acted on simultaneously by enzymes.

It is therefore more rapidly what?

Glycogen is therefore more rapidly broken down to form glucose monomers

32

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. It is more highly branched than starch and so has more ends that can be acted on simultaneously by enzymes.

It is therefore more rapidly broken down to form glucose monomers, which are used where?

Glycogen is therefore more rapidly broken down to form glucose monomers, which are used in respiration

33

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. It is more highly branched than starch and so has more ends that can be acted on simultaneously by enzymes.

It is therefore more rapidly broken down to form glucose monomers, which are used in respiration.

This is important to animals that have what than plants?

This is important to animals that have a higher:

1. Metabolic rate

2. Therefore respiratory rate

than plants

34

Glycogen's structure is suited for storage, because:

1. It is insoluble and therefore does not tend to draw water into the cells by osmosis.

2. Being insoluble, glycogen does not diffuse out of cells.

3. Glycogen is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.

4. It is more highly branched than starch and so has more ends that can be acted on simultaneously by enzymes.

It is therefore more rapidly broken down to form glucose monomers, which are used in respiration.

This is important to animals that have a higher metabolic rate and therefore respiratory rate than plants, because they are more what?

This is important to animals that have a higher:

1. Metabolic rate

2. Therefore respiratory rate

than plants, because they are more active

35

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of what, rather than what?

Cellulose is made of monomers of:

1. B-glucose

,rather than

2. a-glucose

36

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of monomers of B-glucose, rather than a-glucose.

This seemingly small variation produces what?

This seemingly small variation produces fundamental differences in the:

1. Structure

2. Function

of this polysaccharide

37

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of monomers of B-glucose, rather than a-glucose.

This seemingly small variation produces fundamental differences in the structure and function of this polysaccharide.

Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch, cellulose has what chains?

Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch, cellulose has:

1. Straight

2. Unbranched

chains

38

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of monomers of B-glucose, rather than a-glucose.

This seemingly small variation produces fundamental differences in the structure and function of this polysaccharide.

Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch, cellulose has straight, unbranched chains.

These do what, allowing what?

These straight, unbranched chains run parallel to one another, allowing hydrogen bonds to form cross-linkages between adjacent chains

39

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of monomers of B-glucose, rather than a-glucose.

This seemingly small variation produces fundamental differences in the structure and function of this polysaccharide.

Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch, cellulose has straight, unbranched chains.

These run parallel to one another, allowing hydrogen bonds to form cross-linkages between adjacent chains.

Each individual hydrogen bond adds what to the strength of the molecule?

Each individual hydrogen bond adds very little to the strength of the molecule

40

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of monomers of B-glucose, rather than a-glucose.

This seemingly small variation produces fundamental differences in the structure and function of this polysaccharide.

Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch, cellulose has straight, unbranched chains.

These run parallel to one another, allowing hydrogen bonds to form cross-linkages between adjacent chains.

While each individual hydrogen bond adds very little to the strength of the molecule, what makes a considerable contribution to strengthening cellulose?

While each individual hydrogen bond adds very little to the strength of the molecule, the sheer overall number of them makes a considerable contribution to strengthening cellulose

41

Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in one major respect:

It is made of monomers of B-glucose, rather than a-glucose.

This seemingly small variation produces fundamental differences in the structure and function of this polysaccharide.

Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch, cellulose has straight, unbranched chains.

These run parallel to one another, allowing hydrogen bonds to form cross-linkages between adjacent chains.

While each individual hydrogen bond adds very little to the strength of the molecule, the sheer overall number of them makes a considerable contribution to strengthening cellulose, making cellulose what?

While each individual hydrogen bond adds very little to the strength of the molecule, the sheer overall number of them makes a considerable contribution to strengthening cellulose, making cellulose the valuable structural material that it is

42

The cellulose chain, unlike that of starch, has adjacent glucose molecules rotated by what?

The cellulose chain, unlike that of starch, has adjacent glucose molecules rotated by 180 degrees

43

The cellulose chain, unlike that of starch, has adjacent glucose molecules rotated by 180 degrees.

This allows hydrogen bonds to be formed between what that help to give cellulose its structural stability?

This allows hydrogen bonds to be formed between the hydroxyl (-OH) groups on adjacent parallel chains that help to give cellulose its structural stability

44

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form what?

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils

45

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are what?

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres

46

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides what to the plant cell?

Cellulose:

1. Is a major component of plant cell walls

2. Provides rigidity to the plant cell

47

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from doing what as water enters it by osmosis?

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis

48

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis.

It does this by doing what?

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis by exerting an inward pressure that stops any further influx of water

49

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis.

It does this by exerting an inward pressure that stops any further influx of water.

As a result, living plant cells are what?

As a result, living plant cells are turgid

50

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis.

It does this by exerting an inward pressure that stops any further influx of water.

As a result, living plant cells are turgid and do what?

As a result, living plant cells:

1. Are turgid

2. Push against one another

51

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis.

It does this by exerting an inward pressure that stops any further influx of water.

As a result, living plant cells are turgid and push against one another, making non-woody parts of the plant what?

As a result, living plant cells:

1. Are turgid

2. Push against one another

,making non-woody parts of the plant semi-rigid

52

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis.

It does this by exerting an inward pressure that stops any further influx of water.

As a result, living plant cells are turgid and push against one another, making non-woody parts of the plant semi-rigid.

This is especially important in doing what?

This is especially important in maintaining:

1. Stems

2. Leaves

in a turgid state

 

53

The cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils, which, in turn, are arranged in parallel groups called fibres.

Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and provides rigidity to the plant cell.

The cellulose cell wall also prevents the cell from bursting as water enters it by osmosis.

It does this by exerting an inward pressure that stops any further influx of water.

As a result, living plant cells are turgid and push against one another, making non-woody parts of the plant semi-rigid.

This is especially important in maintaining stems and leaves in a turgid state, so that they can do what?

This is especially important in maintaining:

1. Stems

2. Leaves

in a turgid state, so that they can provide the maximum surface area for photosynthesis

 

54

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of what?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing:

1. Support

2. Rigidity

,because cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose

55

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form what chains?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form:

1. Long

2. Straight

3. Unbranched

chains

56

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form long, straight and unbranched chains.

2. These cellulose molecular chains run how?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because these cellular molecular chains run parallel to each other

57

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form long, straight and unbranched chains.

2. These cellulose molecular chains run parallel to each other and are crossed by hydrogen bonds which add what?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because these cellular molecular chains:

1. Run parallel to each other

2. Are crossed by hydrogen bonds which add collective strength

58

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form long, straight and unbranched chains.

2. These cellulose molecular chains run parallel to each other and are crossed by hydrogen bonds which add collective strength.

3. These molecules are grouped to form what?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing:

1. Support

2. Rigidity

,because these molecules are grouped to form microfibrils

59

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form long, straight and unbranched chains.

2. These cellulose molecular chains run parallel to each other and are crossed by hydrogen bonds which add collective strength.

3. These molecules are grouped to form microfibrils, which in turn are what?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing:

1. Support

2. Rigidity

,because these molecules are grouped to form microfibrils, which in turn are grouped to form fibres

60

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing support and rigidity, because:

1. Cellulose molecules are made up of B-glucose and so form long, straight and unbranched chains.

2. These cellulose molecular chains run parallel to each other and are crossed by hydrogen bonds which add collective strength.

3. These molecules are grouped to form microfibrils, which in turn are grouped to form microfibrils, which in turn are grouped to form fibres, all of which provides yet more what?

In summary, the structure of cellulose is suited to its function of providing:

1. Support

2. Rigidity

,because these molecules are grouped to form microfibrils, which in turn are grouped to form fibres, all of which provides yet more strength

61

What is the main structural sugar in plants?

Cellulose is the main structural sugar in plants

62

What is about 33% of plant matter?

Cellulose is about 33% of plant matter

63

What is the most common organic compound on Earth?

Cellulose is the most common organic compound on Earth

64

Why can't humans digest cellulose?

Humans can't digest cellulose, because we don't produce the enzyme cellulase

65

Humans can't digest cellulose, because we don't produce the enzyme cellulose.

What, like what, have what in their stomachs?

Ruminants, like cows, have symbiotic bacteria in their stomachs

 

66

The what bonds result in amylopectin having a highly branched structure?

The a-glucose 1 - 6 glycosidic bonds result in amylopectin having a highly branched structure

67

What is 20% of starch?

Amylose (a helix) is 20% of starch

68

What is 80% of starch?

Amylopectin (branched starch) is 80% of starch

69

Amylopectin (branched starch) is 80% of starch.

Amylopectin can be what more quickly than amylose?

Amylopectin can be hydrolysed more quickly than amylose

70

Amylopectin (branched starch) is 80% of starch.

Amylopectin can be hydrolysed more quickly than amylose.

What do plants do with amylopectin?

Plants:

1. Store amylopectin

2. Then hydrolyse it

when they need a supply of energy