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Flashcards in 2.3: Energy and ATP Deck (62):
1

All living organisms require energy in order to remain alive.
Where does this energy initially come from?

This energy comes initially from the Sun

2

All living organisms require energy in order to remain alive.
This energy comes initially from the Sun.
Plants use solar energy to do what?

Plants use solar energy to combine:
1. Water
2. Carbon dioxide
into complex organic molecules by the process of photosynthesis

3

All living organisms require energy in order to remain alive.
This energy comes initially from the Sun.
Plants use solar energy to combine water and carbon dioxide into complex organic molecules by the process of photosynthesis.
Both plants and animals then do what to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Both:
1. Plants
2. Animals
then oxidise these organic molecules to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

4

All living organisms require energy in order to remain alive.
This energy comes initially from the Sun.
Plants use solar energy to combine water and carbon dioxide into complex organic molecules by the process of photosynthesis.
Both plants and animals then oxidise these organic molecules to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as the main energy source to carry out what within cells?

Both:
1. Plants
2. Animals
then oxidise these organic molecules to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as the main energy source to carry out processes within cells

5

You cannot 'make' or 'produce' energy.
Energy can only be what and it can be what?

Energy can only be transformed from one type to another and it can be:
1. Transferred
Or,
2. Released

6

The structure of ATP:
How many parts does ATP have?

ATP has 3 parts:
1. Adenine
2. Ribose
3. A chain of 3 phosphate groups

7

The structure of ATP:
ATP has 3 parts: Adenine - A what, ribose and a chain of 3 phosphate groups?

ATP has 3 parts:
1. Adenine - A nitrogen-containing organic base
2. Ribose
3. A chain of 3 phosphate groups

8

The structure of ATP:
ATP has 3 parts: Adenine - A nitrogen-containing organic base, ribose - A what sugar molecule that acts as the what, and a chain of 3 phosphate groups?

ATP has 3 parts:
1. Adenine - A nitrogen-containing organic base
2. Ribose - A pentose sugar that acts as the backbone to which the other parts are attached
3. A chain of 3 phosphate groups

9

ATP is the what currency?

ATP is the universal energy currency

10

ATP is a store of what energy?

ATP is a store of chemical potential energy

11

ATP is a store of chemical potential energy.
ATP is what to release what?

ATP is hydrolysed to release chemical energy

12

ATP is a store of chemical potential energy.
ATP is hydrolysed to release chemical energy that can be used where?

ATP is hydrolysed to release chemical energy that can be used in:
1. Reactions
2. Processes

13

When ATP is hydrolysed to form what, how much energy is released?

When ATP is hydrolysed to form:
1. ADP
2. Inorganic phosphate
,30.5 kJ of energy are released

14

How many main types of biological processes require energy?

3 main types of biological processes require energy:
1. Synthesis
2. Transport
3. Movement

15

3 main types of biological processes require energy: Synthesis - The building of what from smaller molecules, transport and movement?

3 main types of biological processes require energy:
1. Synthesis - The building of large, complex molecules from smaller molecules
2. Transport
3. Movement

16

3 main types of biological processes require energy: Synthesis - The building of large, complex molecules from smaller molecules, transport - Doing what by active transport and movement?

3 main types of biological processes require energy:
1. Synthesis - The building of large, complex molecules from smaller molecules
2. Transport - Pumping molecules or ions across the membrane by active transport
3. Movement

17

3 main types of biological processes require energy: Synthesis - The building of large, complex molecules from smaller molecules, transport - Pumping molecules or ions across the membrane by active transport and movement - What require energy to contract?

3 main types of biological processes require energy:
1. Synthesis - The building of large, complex molecules from smaller molecules
2. Transport - Pumping molecules or ions across the membrane by active transport
3. Movement - Protein muscle fibres in muscle cells require energy to contract

18

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to what?

These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy

19

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy.
The bonds between these phosphate groups are what and so have what?

The bonds between these phosphate groups:
1. Are unstable
2. So have a low activation energy

20

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy.
The bonds between these phosphate groups are unstable and so have a low activation energy, which means that they are what?

The bonds between these phosphate groups:
1. Are unstable
2. So have a low activation energy
,which means that they are easily broken

21

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy.
The bonds between these phosphate groups are unstable and so have a low activation energy, which means that they are easily broken.
When they do break, they release what?

When they do break, they release a considerable amount of energy

22

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy.
The bonds between these phosphate groups are unstable and so have a low activation energy, which means that they are easily broken.
When they do break, they release a considerable amount of energy.
As water is used to convert ATP to what, this is known as a hydrolysis reaction?

As water is used to convert:
1. ATP
to
2. ADP
,this is known as a hydrolysis reaction

23

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy.
The bonds between these phosphate groups are unstable and so have a low activation energy, which means that they are easily broken.
When they do break, they release a considerable amount of energy.
As water is used to convert ATP to ADP, this is known as a hydrolysis reaction.
What is the reaction catalysed by?

The reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase (ATPase)

24

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and has 3 phosphate groups.
These 3 phosphate groups are key to how ATP stores energy.
The bonds between these phosphate groups are unstable and so have a low activation energy, which means that they are easily broken.
When they do break, they release a considerable amount of energy.
As water is used to convert ATP to ADP, this is known as a hydrolysis reaction.
The reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase (ATPase).
ATP is resynthesized how?

ATP is resynthesized in condensation reactions

25

The chemical equation for the hydrolysis of ATP

The chemical equation for the hydrolysis of ATP is:
ATP + H2O ---> ADP + An inorganic phosphate + Energy

26

The conversion of ATP to ADP is a what reaction?

The conversion of:
1. ATP
to
2. ADP
is a reversible reaction

27

The conversion of ATP to ADP is a reversible reaction and therefore energy can be used to do what to re-form ATP according to the reverse of the equation?

The conversion of ATP to ADP is a reversible reaction and therefore energy can be used to add an inorganic phosphate to ADP to re-form ATP according to the reverse of the equation

28

The conversion of ATP to ADP is a reversible reaction and therefore energy can be used to add an inorganic phosphate to ADP to re-form ATP according to the reverse of the equation.
What is this reaction catalysed by?

This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATP synthase

29

The conversion of ATP to ADP is a reversible reaction and therefore energy can be used to add an inorganic phosphate to ADP to re-form ATP according to the reverse of the equation.
This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATP synthase.
As water is removed in this process, what is the reaction known as?

As water is removed in this process, the reaction is known as a condensation reaction

30

What does the synthesis of ATP from ADP involve?

The synthesis of:
1. ATP
from
2. ADP
involves the addition of a phosphate molecule to ADP

31

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP what?

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP:
1. A good energy donor
2. Not a good long-term energy store

32

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP a good energy donor and not a good long-term energy store.
What serve this purpose far better?

1. Fats
2. Carbohydrates
serve this purpose of energy storage far better

33

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP a good energy donor and not a good long-term energy store.
Fats and carbohydrates, such as what, serve this purpose of energy storage far better?

1. Fats
2. Carbohydrates, such as glycogen
,serve this purpose of energy storage far better

34

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP a good energy donor and not a good long-term energy store.
Fats and carbohydrates, such as glycogen, serve this purpose of energy storage far better.
ATP is therefore what?

ATP is therefore the immediate energy source of a cell

35

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP a good energy donor and not a good long-term energy store.
Fats and carbohydrates, such as glycogen, serve this purpose of energy storage far better.
ATP is therefore the immediate energy source of a cell.
As a result, cells do not store what?

As a result, cells do not store large quantities of ATP

36

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP a good energy donor and not a good long-term energy store.
Fats and carbohydrates, such as glycogen, serve this purpose of energy storage far better.
ATP is therefore the immediate energy source of a cell.
As a result, cells do not store large quantities of ATP, but rather just maintain a few seconds' supply.
The hydrolysis of ATP releases what, ideal for fuelling reactions in the body?

The hydrolysis of ATP releases a small amount of energy, ideal for fuelling reactions in the body

37

ATP releases its energy how in a single reaction?

ATP releases its energy instantly in a single reaction

38

The instability of ATP's phosphate bonds makes ATP a good energy donor and not a good long-term energy store.
Fats and carbohydrates, such as glycogen, serve this purpose of energy storage far better.
ATP is therefore the immediate energy source of a cell.
As a result, cells do not store large quantities of ATP, but rather just maintain a few seconds' supply.
Why is this not a problem?

This is not a problem, because ATP is rapidly re-formed from:
1. ADP
2. Inorganic phosphate
and so a little goes a long way

39

ATP is a better immediate energy source than glucose for the following reasons:
1. Each ATP molecules releases what than each glucose molecule?

Each ATP molecules releases less energy than each glucose molecule

40

ATP is a better immediate energy source than glucose for the following reasons:
1. Each ATP molecules releases less energy than each glucose molecule.
This energy for reactions is therefore released in what quantities?

This energy for reactions is therefore released in:
1. Smaller
2. More manageable
quantities

41

ATP is a better immediate energy source than glucose for the following reasons:
1. Each ATP molecules releases less energy than each glucose molecule.
This energy for reactions is therefore released in smaller, more manageable quantities, rather than the what release of energy from a glucose molecule?

This energy for reactions is therefore released in smaller, more manageable quantities, rather than the:
1. Much greater
2. Therefore less manageable
release of energy from a glucose molecule

42

ATP is a better immediate energy source than glucose for the following reasons:
1. Each ATP molecules releases less energy than each glucose molecule.
This energy for reactions is therefore released in smaller, more manageable quantities, rather than the much greater and therefore less manageable release of energy from a glucose molecule.
2. The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction that releases what energy?

The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction that releases immediate energy

43

ATP is a better immediate energy source than glucose for the following reasons:
1. Each ATP molecules releases less energy than each glucose molecule.
This energy for reactions is therefore released in smaller, more manageable quantities, rather than the much greater and therefore less manageable release of energy from a glucose molecule.
2. The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction that releases immediate energy.
However, the breakdown of glucose is a what and therefore what takes longer?

The breakdown of glucose is a long series of reactions and therefore the energy release takes longer

44

ATP cannot be stored and so has to be what?

ATP cannot be stored and so has to be continually made within the mitochondria of cells that need it

45

ATP cannot be stored and so has to be continually made within the mitochondria of cells that need it.
Cells, such as what, which require energy for what, possess many large mitochondria?

Cells, such as muscle fibres and the epithelium of the small intestine, which require energy for:
1. Movement
2. Active transport
respectively, possess many large mitochondria

46

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including what?

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including:
1. Metabolic processes
2. Movement
3. Active transport
4. Secretion
5. Activation of molecules

47

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
1. Metabolic processes:
ATP provides the energy needed to build up what from their basic units?

ATP provides the energy needed to build up macromolecules from their basic units

48

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
1. Metabolic processes:
ATP provides the energy needed to build up macromolecules from their basic units.
Example

For example, making:
1. Starch from glucose
Or,
2. Polypeptides from amino acids

49

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
2. Movement:
ATP provides the energy for what?

ATP provides the energy for muscle contraction

50

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
2. Movement:
ATP provides the energy for muscle contraction.
In muscle contraction, ATP provides the energy for the what of muscle to do what?

In muscle contraction, ATP provides the energy for the filaments of muscle to slide past one another

51

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
2. Movement:
ATP provides the energy for muscle contraction.
In muscle contraction, ATP provides the energy for the filaments of muscle to slide past one another and therefore shorten what?

In muscle contraction, ATP provides the energy for the filaments of muscle to:
1. Slide past one another
2. Therefore shorten the overall length of a muscle fibre

52

ATP is what during reactions that release energy and ATP is what for reactions that require it?

ATP is:
1. Synthesised during reactions that release energy
2. Hydrolysed to provide energy for reactions that require it

53

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
3. Active transport:
ATP provides the energy to do what in plasma membranes?

ATP provides the energy to change the shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes

54

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
3. Active transport:
ATP provides the energy to change the shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes.
What does this allow?

This allows:
1. Molecules
Or,
2. Ions
to be moved against a concentration gradient

55

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
4. Secretion:
ATP is needed to form the what necessary for what?

ATP is needed to form the lysosomes necessary for the secretion of cell products

56

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
Activation of molecules:
1. The inorganic phosphate released during the hydrolysis of ATP can be used to lower what in what?

The inorganic phosphate released during the hydrolysis of ATP can be used to lower the activation energy in enzyme-catalysed reactions

57

ATP is used in energy-requiring processes in cells including metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion and activation of molecules.
Activation of molecules:
1. The inorganic phosphate released during the hydrolysis of ATP can be used to lower the activation energy in enzyme-catalysed reactions.
Example

For example, the addition of phosphate to glucose molecules at the start of glycolysis

58

Glycolysis

Glycolysis is the first part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down anaerobically in the cytoplasm

59

The properties of ATP:
1. ATP is what, so it is easy to move about, in and out of cells?

ATP is small, so it is easy to move about:
1. In
2. Out
of cells

60

The properties of ATP:
1. ATP is small, so it is easy to move about, in and out of cells.
2. ATP is what, so energy-requiring processes can occur where?

ATP is water-soluble, so energy-requiring processes can occur in aqueous environments

61

The properties of ATP:
1. ATP is small, so it is easy to move about, in and out of cells.
2. ATP is water-soluble, so energy-requiring processes can occur in aqueous environments.
3. ATP releases in small quantities - Large enough to do what, but not too large that what happens?

ATP releases in small quantities -
1. Large enough to be useful in cellular reactions
,but
2. Not too large that energy is wasted as heat

62

The properties of ATP:
1. ATP is small, so it is easy to move about, in and out of cells.
2. ATP is water-soluble, so energy-requiring processes can occur in aqueous environments.
3. ATP releases in small quantities - Large enough to be useful in cellular reactions, but not too large that energy is wasted as heat.
4. ATP is easily what, because it can be what with energy?

ATP is easily regenerated, because it can be recharged with energy