15 Bordetella/Haemophilus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15 Bordetella/Haemophilus Deck (45):
1

what anatomical location are bordetella, haemophilus, and moraxells typically found?

upper airway

2

bordetella grows on what agar? Has what shape?

-bordet-gengou or regan-lowe
-coccobacillus

3

T/F B. pertussis is aerobic? Non-fastidious?

-T
-F

4

what is infection rate of whooping cough?

100% in unvaccinated (but may not show symptoms)

5

what 2 organisms cause whooping cough?

B. pertussis, parapertussis

6

pertussis is common in what age group?

less than 5 yrs

7

when did vaccination start for pertussis? before that, what was mortality rate?

1940's
1%

8

T/F recently there is an increase in pertussis?

T (non-vaccinaters)

9

T/F pertussis vaccination is world-wide?

F

10

Catarrhal stage pertussis how many weeks?

1-2 wks

11

paroxysmal stage pertussis how many weeks?

2-8

12

convalescent stage pertussis is what?

symptoms get better (after paroxysmal stage)

13

Which pertussis stage is most contagious?

catarrhal

14

List B. pertussis MAIN virulence factors? (3)

-filamentous hemagglutinin (adhere to glycolipids in CILIATED epithelium)
-pertussis toxin (also an adhesion)
-pertactin (adhere to cells)

15

what type of toxin is pertussis toxin? What's its mechanism?

-A-B toxin, ADP-ribosylating
-up Gs ->up adenylate cyclase ->up cAMP -> ions are expelled from cell ->paralyzes cell (up respiratory mucus)

16

List B. pertussis additional toxins? (4)

-cya toxin (anti-inflamm, anti-phagocytic)
-dermonecrotic toxin
-tracheal toxin (cilia paralysis)
-endotoxin

17

pneumonia, otitis media, seizures, encephalopathy, death are complications of what disease?

pertussis [of these pneumonia is the MOST common. death is rare.]

18

What symptoms when a vaccinated individual gets pertussis?

90-day cough can be only symptom, or sometimes also scratchy throat, episodes of sweating, post-tussive vomiting

19

how do we vaccinate for pertussis?

purified B. pertussis components w/ D and T toxoids (DTaP for "acellular")

20

what are the components of "aP" in pertussis vaccination/

pertussis toxoid, two colonization antigens and NO endotoxin

21

pertussis immunization schedule?

2,4,6,15-18 months, 4-6 yrs

22

T/F prophylactic antibiotics are provided to ALL close contacts of a pertussis case?

T

23

Haemophilus is coccus/Bacilli? anaerobe/aerobe? Transformable/not? Fastidious/not?

-coccobacilli
-facultative anaerobe
-NATURALLY transformable
-Fastidious

24

T/F non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenza is found in human oral cavity and mucosal surfaces of upper resp. tract normally?

T. (80% of humans!) [occasionally healthy people also harbor encapsulated Hib]

25

Type-able strains of H. influenza have what serotype?

a-f (b most prevalent. This is the vaccinated strain!)

26

Non-typeable strains of H. influenza have capsule or not? cause disease or not?

-no, yes occasionally

27

When it comes to the disease it causes, how is H. parainfluenzae different than H. influenza?

same, but lower incidence

28

what strain of H. influenza is known for pink eye which can progress to Brazilian purpuric fever?

aegypticus

29

what strain of H. influenza causes "soft chancre/chancroid"?

H. ducreyi [mostly tropical, may not even be a real haemophilus!]

30

What diseases can H. influenza cause? (3 categories) [global card, review rather than memorize]

occasionally:
-meningitis, epiglottitis
Rarely:
-pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia
Local:
-otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis

31

COPD is commonly exacerbated by what organism?

H. influenzae

32

Hib no longer causes what childhood problem post-CONJUGATE vaccination?

meningitis is kids under 5 yrs

33

What are Haemophilus Influenzae B. virulence factors?

-NO exotoxin!
-anti-phagocytic + adhesin capsule in Hib only
-LOS
-neuraminidase & IgA protease (role in invasion unproven)

34

For non-type-B H. influenza, what are virulence factors?

unknown (NO exotoxin!)

35

growing H. influenze requires?

choc agar /w X (hemin) and V (NAD) at 37 degrees in CO2-enriched environment

36

besides growing, how can we diagnose H. influenza?

type b capsular antigen detection

37

Treat H. influenza with what? What is key to treatment?

-cefuroxime since it crosses Blood-Brain-Barrier (and since Beta-lactamases are common)
-Prompt! (epiglottitis/meningitis 99% mortality)

38

Moraxella is similar to what pathogen?

Haemophilus

39

T/F 50% healthy kids and some adults have Moraxella flora?

T

40

Moraxella usually causes what diseases?

-otitis media in kids
-sinusitis in adults
-COPD exacerbations (like Haemophilus)

41

If Moraxella progresses to bacteremia what does this mean?

patient has other serious disease. (don't usually progress)

42

Virulence factors of Moraxella?

-adhesins
-LOS

43

How is Moraxella different from Haemophilus?

-diplococcus
-grow on most agars!

44

How do we treat Moraxella?

-Beta-lactam plus B-lactamase inhibitor (like augmentin), or 2 or 3 gen. cephalosporins

45

How is Moraxella similar to Haemophilus?

-most things
-oxidase positive
-gram neg.