T/F peripheral nervous sys. is both autonomic and somatic?
Sympathetics exit the CNS at what levels?
Parasympathetics exit the CNS at what levels?
CN 3,7,9,10 and S2-S4 (sacral)
Sympa or Parasympa has which of the following? -myelinated preganglionics -peripheral ganglia -unmyelinated postganglionics -Postganglionic transmission sites are on sm. muscle, gland cells & cardiac muscle
Both have all
T/F Somatic nervous sys. has ganglia in the periphery?
F. (all in CNS)
T/F There are unmyelinated somatic nerves?
The tissues of WHICH system can continue functioning independent of innervation? (autonomic or somatic)
Describe neurotransmitter release & reception
Made -> Put in vesicles -> Ca2+ up -> Released-> diffuse ->Hit receptor ->Diffuse or degrade
ACh or NE (acetylcholine or norepinephrine) is released by most postganglionic sympathetics?
NE. [ACh for all preganglionic & postganglionic parasympa]
Which system uses dopamine?
Name ACh receptor subclasses? (parasympa)
Nicotinic: N1 N2 Muscarinic: M1 M2 M3 M4
AChE (acetylcholinesterase) does what? Where?
destroys ACh at synapses. In body, (plasma, liver, glial cells, satellite cells)
Where are the following receptors found? N1
N1-sympa, parasympa ganglia [Note N1 is equally sensitive to agonists and antagonists]
Name NE (norepinephrine) receptor subclasses? (sympa)
-Alpha1 -Alpha2 -Beta1 -Beta2
Mechanism, function, location: alpha 1 receptor?
-G protein coupled -activates phospholipase C -smooth muscle contract (ex, sweat glands)
Mechanism, function, location: alpha 2 receptor?
-G protein coupled -inactivates adenylate cyclase -postganglionic sympa terminals & presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals
Mechanism, function, location: Beta 1 receptor?
-G protein coupled -activates adenylate cyclase -cardiac muscle, presynaptic adrenergic & cholinergic terminals
Mechanism, function, location: Beta 2 receptor?
-G protein coupled -activates adenylate cyclase -smooth & cardiac muscle
Dopamine is used where in the peripheral nervous system? Give 1 example
-SOME postganglionic sympathetics -Postjunctional renal vascular sm. muscle
Where are the following receptors found? N2
Where are the following receptors found? M1
M1-ganglia, secretory glands
Where are the following receptors found? M2
M2-smooth & cardiac muscle, sweat glands
Where are the following receptors found? M3, M4
M3, M4- smooth muscle, secretory glands
Sweat glands are special in innervation... why?
sympathetic innervation, but 1/2 are ACh ("cholinergic sympathetic" muscarinic receptors), 1/2 are NE. [Know this!]
Adrenal medulla innervation is special... why?
Modified Sympathetic GANGLIONIC innervation, but use ACh as the neurotransmitter, w/ NO POSTGANGLIONIC fibers.
Which 5 body locations have only sympathetics?
Blood vessels Sweat glands Liver Spleen Adrenal gland
T/F motor axons are myelinated?
All somatic nerves have what kind of neurotransmitter? What kind of receptor?
ChAT enzyme does what?
Combines AcCoa and Choline
VAT transporter does what?
package ACh in vesicles
T/G ACh neurons can stimulate themselves by releasing ACh?
What triggers Ca2+ influx at a nerve terminal?
What kind of machinery causes vesicles to fuse w/ membrane & exocyose their contents?
In summary where is ACh mostly used?
all preganglionic, all postganglionic parasympa, 1/2 of sweat gland sympathetics, all somatic nerves
In summary where is NE used?
What is a co-transmitter's function? (3)
-Hasten/slow action of primary neurotransmitter -provide feedback inhibition -main transmitter in non-ACh, non-NE nerves
Name the co-transmitters? (8)
-purines (adenosine, ATP) -peptides (cholecystokinin, somatostatin, substance P, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide) -NO (nitric oxide)
How does adrenal medulla react when stimulated?
chromaffin cells release epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) into blood (80% Epi)