Flashcards in 16 Anatomy of the respiratory tract Deck (32):
Functions of the respiratory tract: (6)
Removal of CO2
Defence against pathogens
Upper respiratory tract consists of:
What are the functions of the upper respiratory tracts?
-Warms, moistens and filters air
Functional adaptations of the nose:
Rich capillary network
What are vibrissae?
nose hairs - at the entrance trap dust particles
What are conchae?
Shelf like projections in the lateral wall, cause turbulent (slow) airflow which allows time to moisten and warm air
What are the functional adaptations of mucosa in the nose?
-pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
What is the purpose of the rich capillary network in the nose?
To warm the air
-located in the upper aspect of the nose
-contains receptors for smell
What are the paranasal sinuses?
Air filled spaces that drain into the nasal cavity
lighten the skull and resonate sound
also lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
What is the pharynx?
A communal passageway for food and air to enter the body
-Air enters the nasopharynx (posterior to the nose) and travels down the laryngopharynx (posterior to the larynx)
-Food enters the oropharynx (posterior to the mouth) and passes down into the oesophagus
How many muscles do you use to swallow food?
What is the structure of the larynx?
Made up of three different cartilages
Lined by membranes which form the edges of vocal chords
Also includes the glottis
How do we vary the pitch of voice?
By moving the arytenoid cartilage to determine how much air gets into the larynx
What is the glottis
the space where air goes down. The epiglottis can close up the glottis if food passes o stop it entering
What does the lower respiratory tract consist of?
What does the conductive portion of the resp system consist of?
What does the respiratory portion of the resp system consist of?
Structure of the trachea:
-4.5 cm long
-2.5 cm diameter
-consists of C shaped rings of cartilage
-Can't be collapsed
-Lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Position of the trachea
-anterior to oesophagus
-extends from larynx to carina
What changes from the trachea to the bronchi?
-series of tubes that get smaller in diameter
-smooth muscle increases
-epithelial cells become more cuboidal
Structure of primary bronchi:
-Supply each lung
-Right is wider and more vertical than left because L is avoiding heart
-C shaped cartilage present
Structure of secondary bronchi:
-supply each lobe
-3 on the right 2 on the left
-plates of smooth muscle with cartilage imbetween
Structure of tertiary bronchi:
-supply segments of the lungs
-contain plates of cartilage
Structure of bronchioles
Don't contain cartilage
Mainly smooth muscles so can contract and dilate
How many terminal bronchioles come from each bronchiole?
Whats in the terminal bronchioles?
-simple columnar ciliated epithelium incase some mucus gets down there
-clara cells produce surfactant
Whats in the respiratory bronchioles?
-simple cuboidal epithelia
-occasional alveoli extend from lumen so gas exchange can take place here
What are the types of alveolar cells?
1 and 2
2 secretes surfactant
1 simple squamous epithelium forms wall
macrophages are present in alveoli to engulf pathogens and dust particles
Respiratory membrane in alveoli:
-the basement membrane and the epithelial cells of the alveoli fuse, as do the basement membrane and endothelium of capillary making a shorter distance for diffusion
What happens if blood pressure in the lungs gets too high?
If pressure in the lung capillaries gets too high fluid can be forced out into the interstitial fluid or alveoli, pushing apart the basement membranes and greatly slowing gas exchange