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Flashcards in 16 Anatomy of the respiratory tract Deck (32):
1

Functions of the respiratory tract: (6)

Provides o2
Removal of CO2
Regulates pH
Defence against pathogens
Produces sound
Smell

2

Upper respiratory tract consists of:

-Nose
-Pharynx
-Larynx
-Paranasal sinuses

3

What are the functions of the upper respiratory tracts?

-Modifies sound
-Smell
-Warms, moistens and filters air

4

Functional adaptations of the nose:

Vibrissae
Conchae
Mucosa
Rich capillary network
Olfactory muscles
Paranasal sinuses

5

What are vibrissae?

nose hairs - at the entrance trap dust particles

6

What are conchae?

Shelf like projections in the lateral wall, cause turbulent (slow) airflow which allows time to moisten and warm air

7

What are the functional adaptations of mucosa in the nose?

-pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

8

What is the purpose of the rich capillary network in the nose?

To warm the air

9

Olfactory mucosa:

-located in the upper aspect of the nose
-contains receptors for smell

10

What are the paranasal sinuses?

Air filled spaces that drain into the nasal cavity
lighten the skull and resonate sound
also lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

11

What is the pharynx?

A communal passageway for food and air to enter the body
-Air enters the nasopharynx (posterior to the nose) and travels down the laryngopharynx (posterior to the larynx)
-Food enters the oropharynx (posterior to the mouth) and passes down into the oesophagus
N
O
L

12

How many muscles do you use to swallow food?

28

13

What is the structure of the larynx?

Made up of three different cartilages
-Arytenoid
-Cricoid
-Thyroid
Lined by membranes which form the edges of vocal chords
Also includes the glottis

14

How do we vary the pitch of voice?

By moving the arytenoid cartilage to determine how much air gets into the larynx

15

What is the glottis

the space where air goes down. The epiglottis can close up the glottis if food passes o stop it entering

16

What does the lower respiratory tract consist of?

Trachea
Primary bronchi
Secondary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
Primary bronchioles
Secondary bronchioles
Terminary bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveolar sacs
Alveoli

17

What does the conductive portion of the resp system consist of?

Trachea
Primary bronchi
Secondary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
Primary bronchioles
Secondary bronchioles
Terminary bronchioles

18

What does the respiratory portion of the resp system consist of?

Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveolar sacs
Alveoli

19

Structure of the trachea:

-4.5 cm long
-2.5 cm diameter
-consists of C shaped rings of cartilage
-Can't be collapsed
-Lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

20

Position of the trachea

-anterior to oesophagus
-extends from larynx to carina

21

What changes from the trachea to the bronchi?

-series of tubes that get smaller in diameter
-cartilage decreases
-smooth muscle increases
-epithelial cells become more cuboidal

22

Structure of primary bronchi:

-Supply each lung
-Right is wider and more vertical than left because L is avoiding heart
-2-3cm long
-C shaped cartilage present

23

Structure of secondary bronchi:

-supply each lobe
-3 on the right 2 on the left
-plates of smooth muscle with cartilage imbetween

24

Structure of tertiary bronchi:

-supply segments of the lungs
-contain plates of cartilage

25

Structure of bronchioles

Don't contain cartilage
Mainly smooth muscles so can contract and dilate

26

How many terminal bronchioles come from each bronchiole?

50-80

27

Whats in the terminal bronchioles?

-simple columnar ciliated epithelium incase some mucus gets down there
-clara cells produce surfactant

28

Whats in the respiratory bronchioles?

-no cilia
-clara cells
-simple cuboidal epithelia
-occasional alveoli extend from lumen so gas exchange can take place here

29

What are the types of alveolar cells?

1 and 2
2 secretes surfactant
1 simple squamous epithelium forms wall
macrophages are present in alveoli to engulf pathogens and dust particles

30

Respiratory membrane in alveoli:

-the basement membrane and the epithelial cells of the alveoli fuse, as do the basement membrane and endothelium of capillary making a shorter distance for diffusion

31

What happens if blood pressure in the lungs gets too high?

If pressure in the lung capillaries gets too high fluid can be forced out into the interstitial fluid or alveoli, pushing apart the basement membranes and greatly slowing gas exchange

32

What is the function of the conducting portion of the respiratory tract?

Warming and moistening air and conducting it to the lungs