4 Lining, Muscle and connective tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4 Lining, Muscle and connective tissue Deck (41):
1

Name the four types of tissue.

-epithelial
-connective
-muscle
-nervous

2

What is histology?

the anatomy at cellular level

3

Name four features of epithelial tissue:

-found in every organ
-line every organ of the body
-lines cavities and tubes
- can from gland

4

Characteristics of epithelial cells:

-good at regeneration
-polarity (apical and basal membranes)
-avascular
-attached to a basement membrane

5

Basic structure of epithelial tissue:

closely packed and all attached to a basement membrane like a lego board

6

How do we classify epithelial tissue?

number of layers

shape of cells

7

What do we call epithelial tissue with several layers of cells vs 1 layer?

several layers = stratified
1 layer = simple

8

What are the shapes of epithelial cells?

-cuboidal
-columnar
-squamous

9

Describe the structure of a squamous epithelial cell.

long thin and flat (squashed) with nucleus stretched in same direction as cell

10

Describe the structure of a columnar epithelial cell

-rectangular shape - basally located nucleus

11

Describe the feature of a cuboidal epithelial cell

elongated nucleus in the middle and square

12

How do we name the tissue (shapely) if its stratified epithelial?

By the most superficial layer

13

Name 3 types of squamous epithelial tissue and where they are found

-Simple
-Keratinised stratified
-Non keratinised stratified

14

Where are simple squamous epithelial tissues found?

alveoli and blood vessels - for gas an nutrient exchange

15

Keratinised stratified squamous epithelial tissues are found in...

...gums and skin because the keratin provides some protection and waterproofing

16

non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelial tissue is found...

...oral cavity (cheek) and oesophagus - mainly for protection and a barrier

17

Where would you find simple cuboidal epithelium and what is it for?

Found in the kidney tubes and gland and is used for secretion and absorbtion

18

Where would you find simple columnar epithelium and what is it for?

Digestive tract coz they contain microvilli and are used for absorption and secretion

19

Where would you find simple pseudo stratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells and what is it for?

trachea - acts as a mucociliary escalator
-appear stratified as some cells don't reach the free surface though all are attached to basement membrane

20

Which type of tissue lines the oesophagus (specific)?

pseudo stratified columnar epithelial tissue with goblet cells

21

What is an intercellular junction?

Specialised areas of a cell membrane that bind a cell together

22

4 examples of intercellular junctions

-tight
-demosome
-hemidemosome
-gap junctions

23

explain a tight junction
where?

found near the apical membrane, bind cells together tightly though interlocking proteins which don't allow anything imbetween the cells
digestive tract

24

explain a demosome

loos like a wire cage holding cells together - found near the basement membrane and tightly holds cell together stopping them from splaying (lego board analogy) - resists twisting and streching
contain dense plates

25

explain a hemidemosome

found on the basement membrane - securely attaches the cell onto the underlying tissue

26

explain a gap junction
where?

interlocking membrane proteins (connexions) hold two cells together but have a central pore that small molecules can pass through
cardiac muscle

27

Connective tissue is made up of

few cells in an abundance of extracellular matrix

28

What makes up the extracellular matrix in connective tissue?

-ground substances
-extracellular (tissue) fluid
-fibres
collagen, reticular and elastic

29

What types of connective tissue are there?

Specialised:
-Blood , lymph, bone, collagen
Proper:
-Loose (alveolar)
-Dense regular
-Dense irregular

30

What is in loose alveolar CT and where is it found?

-ground substances +++
-a few fibres
-adipocytes
-macrophages (transient)
-fibroblasts
found under epithelium lining and covering organs

31

What is in dense connective tissue?

-few ground substances
lots of fibres (mainly collagen)
fibroblasts

32

What are the differences between the two dens CT's?

-regular - the collagen bundles are parallel -tendons and ligaments
Irregular - haphazardly arranged collagen bundles - resists excessive stretching and distension - dermis

33

What cells are present in connective tissue?

-mast cells
-adipocytes
-macrophages
-FIBROBLASTS

34

What are the different types of muscle?

-smooth
-skeletal
-cardiac

35

Skeletal muscle functions:

-skeletal movement and support
-forming sphyncters
-involved in respiration

36

Skeletal muscle structure:

-long thin cylindrical cells
-striated
-multinucleated
-somatic nervous system

37

Cardiac muscle structure:

-long branched muscle cells
-intercalated discs
-1/2 centrally located nuclei
-striated
-autonomic

38

Smooth muscle function:

-found in organ walls and airways and vessels
-constriction of airways and vessels
-digestion

39

Smooth muscle structure:

-short fusiform cells
-single central nucleus
-non striated
-autonomic

40

Functions of connective tissue:

-protection of organs
-protection of body from microbes
-provides a structural framework for the body
-transport of dissolved substance
-connects different tissue types
-stores energy reserves

41

All muscle cells have: (3)

--cell elongation parallel to direction of contraction
--contractile elements
--many mitochondria