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Discuss social psychology explanations for aggression (16)

Hans Eysenck (1967,1978) developed the theory of personality based on bio factors. He argues individuals inherit a nervous system affecting ability to learn and adapt to the environment. The idea that trait cluster together
- Extraversion = introversion - characterised as outgoing, positive emotions and may get bored easily. Enjoy risk taking and danger
- Neuroticism = stability - experience negative emotional states such as, anger and depression. People who have negative outlooks and get upset easily.
- Psychoticism = normality - egocentric. aggressive, impulsive, lacking empathy and not concerned about other and their welfare. Aggressive, anti-social people.
Behaviours are normally distributed, expected that 68% will fall into one standard deviation of the mean
Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ) was conducted to find out their trait.
Biological Basis: each trait has a bio basis which is mainly innate. 67% of variance is due to genetic factors.
: E - under-aroused then they require more stimulation. over-aroused then they don't require any stimulation
: N - stability. They are slightly unstable, a 'stable' personality has a unreactive nervous system.
: P - high levels of testosterone means more likely to be found at this end of the scale.


+/- of psychological explanation

: Twin study example Zuckerman (1987) found a +0.52 correlation for identical twins on neuroticism compared with 0.24 for non-identical twins - large genetic component
: Eysenck's study of 2070 male prisoners and 2422 male controls. prisoners scored higher on E, N and P than the non-criminal controls.
:Nature v Nurture. Strongly argues that bio theories on personalities combined with socialisation at childhood create our personality.
:Culturally bias - Holanchock studied black and Hispanic criminals in America and found them to be less extroverted than non-criminals
: Realise heavily on self-report measure of personality created by Eysenck and his colleagues -generate reporter bias


Discuss one or more biological explanations of SZ (16)

Genetic Explanation
- that schiz. runs in the family which has led to a widespread belief that it is inherited.
- predetermine whether an individual develops the disorder
-family, twin and adoption studies are often used to validate the role of genetic factors.
: Family = more common among bio relatives of a person with the diagnosis of the illness. Gottesman (1991) found children with 2 schiz. parents have a concordance rate of 46% and 1 parent of 13%
; Twin = Joseph's (2004) pooled data for all schiz. studies prior 2001 gives significant credibility. He found a concordance rate for MZ twins was 40.4% and DZ twins was 7.4%
Dopamine Hypothesis
- differences in brain chemistry; this would make immediate casual factor for schiz.
- it may result from abnormally high levels of neurotransmitter dopamine or some are oversensitive to dopamine.