1.6: Microbiology Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology > 1.6: Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.6: Microbiology Deck (49):
1

Give an example of a gram positive cocci?

Strep Staph

2

Give an example of a gram negative cocci?

Neisseria

3

Give an example of a gram negative bacilli?

Pseudomonas

4

Give an example of a gram negative cocci-bacilli?

H. Influenzae

5

What is infection of the conjunctiva called?

Conjunctivitis

6

What is infection of the cornea called?

Keratitis

7

What is infection of the entire globe called?

Endophthalmitis

8

What is infection of the skin around the eye called?

Cellulitis

9

What is bacterial conjunctivitis?

This is an acute infection of the conjunctiva of the eye, caused by bacteria. Causes a red and inflamed eye

10

What are the causative organisms in bacterial conjunctivitis of neonates?

Staph Aureus

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

Chlamydia Trachomatis

11

What should be done in neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis?

Ophthalmology referral

12

What are the causative organisms in bacterial conjunctivitis of all ages?

Staph Aureus

Strep Pneumoniae

Haemophilus Influenzae

13

Which of the causative organisms in bacterial conjunctivitis of all ages is most common in children?

Haemophilus Influenzae

14

Treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis?

Swab Chloramphenicol - Drops/Ointment

15

When should you not give Chloramphenicol?

- History of aplastic anaemia

- Allergy

16

What would you consider if symptoms weren't resolving on Chloramphenicol and were instead getting worse?

Possible Chloramphenicol Allergy?

17

Describe viral conjunctivitis?

Red eye caused by virus (normally adenovirus) Leads to red, itchy, inflamed eye that may tear up Self limiting Contagious

18

Describe causes of viral conjunctivitis?

Adenovirus

Herpes Simplex

Herpes Zoster

19

Describe presentation of herpes simplex? Common in?

Red, itchy, inflamed eye Often eyelid skin is involved and covered in vesicular lesions Common in children and infants

20

Describe presentation of herpes zoster?

Presents as fever, malaise, severe pain and lesions along the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. May also have ocular discharge and conjunctivitis.

21

Young, sexually active adult with bilateral conjunctivitis You should consider..?

Chlamydia Conjunctivitis

22

What is Chlamydia Conjunctivitis?

This is conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia trachomatis Often unresponsive to treatment Presents with a red eye Common in young, sexually active adult Requires contact tracing

23

Symptoms of chlamydia conjunctivitis?

Chronic Conjunctivitis Purulent Discharge May have vaginitis or urethritis

24

What is Hypopyon?

This is inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber Appears as yellowish exudate 

25

Describe bacterial keratitis? Associated with?

This is bacterial infection of the cornea Requires hospital admission for daily review and hourly eye drops Often associated with other corneal pathology or contact lens wearing

26

Describe herpes keratitis?

Herpes infection of the cornea Often presents with a dendritic ulcer Very painful

27

Treatment of herpes keratitis? Cautious about?

Aciclovir (Anti-viral) Never give steroids alone to herpes keratitis - increase virus growth leading to corneal melting and perforation

28

Describe adenovirus keratitis? Treatment?

Usually bilateral Follows upper respiratory tract infection Can damage vision and become chronic May give topical antibiotics to prevent secondary infection and steroids to speed up recovery

29

Describe fungal keratitis?

Common in those with contact lenses Caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa or acanthamoeba Takes a long time to heal Usually history of trauma by vegetation

30

Describe cellulitis?

Very painful especially when moving the eye Can cause pyrexia Associated with paranasal sinusitis Sight threatening

31

Radiography in someone with cellulitis?

CT scan for intra-orbital abscess

32

Describe treatment in orbital cellulitis?

Broad spectrum antibiotics Abscess drainage Monitor Closely

33

Name some organisms in orbital cellulitis?

Staphylococci Streptococci Coliforms Haemophilus Influenzae

34

What is endophthalmitis? Causes?

Infection affecting the entire globe (inside the eye) Very painful with decreasing vision Red eye Sight threatening Post-surgery or endogenous Most commonly conjunctival commissars - staph epidermis

35

Treatment for endophthalmitis?

Intravitreal antibiotics - Amikacin - Vancomycin Topical antibiotics

36

What is chorioretinitis? Causative organisms?

This is the inflammation of the choroid and the retina CMV - Cytomegalovirus (In immunosuppressed eg: Aids) Toxoplasma Gondii Toxocara Canis (Worm)

37

Describe CMV Chorioretinitis?

Only occurs in immunosuppressed people e.g.: those with aids Can cause hemorrhagic retina

38

Describe toxoplasma gondii chorioretinitis?

This causes a mild, flu like illness Rarely causes any further problem In immunocompetent patients, it enters latent phase Very common

39

Describe toxocara Canis chorioretinits?

This is roundworm Found in cats and dogs - can't replicate in humans Can get into eyes and form granulomas Self limiting

40

Describe 5 samples/microbiology tests done for diagnosis of eye infection

Cultures - Bacterial/Viral Eye Scrapes - Bacterial Keratitis Aqueous/Vitrous - Endophthalmitis Serology - Toxoplasma/Toxocara Microscopy - Acanthamoeba

41

Describe Chloramphenicol? Side effects?

Most commonly used topical antibiotic Ointment or drops Broad spectrum antibiotic Bactericidal and bacteriostatic Allergy Irrevesible aplastic anaemia (rare) Grey Baby Syndrome

42

Describe Aciclovir?

anti-viral Inhibits viral DNA synthesis Used for dendritic ulcers of the cornea

43

Should you use steroid drops in viral diseases?

NO Causes multiplication of virus

44

What bacteria does Chloramphenicol not treat?

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

45

Describe Fusidic acid?

Another antibiotic Used against staph aureus

46

Describe Gentamicin?

Another antibiotic Treats most gram negative bacteria Can treat pseudomonas

47

Three treatments for bacterial conjunctivitis?

Chloramphenicol Fusidic Aci Gentamicin

48

Treatment for chlamydial conjunctivitis?

Topical Oxytetracycline

49

Treatment for bacterial keratitis?

Ofloxacin (A quinolone) Gentamicin + Cefuroxime