1.1: Intro to Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology > 1.1: Intro to Ophthalmology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.1: Intro to Ophthalmology Deck (30):
1

Describe the blood supply to the eye?

From the Ophthalmic Artery
This is the first branch of the internal carotid
Branches from the ophthalmic supply to the eye and extra-ocular muscles

2

What is the conjunctiva?

The mucous membrane the covers the eye

3

What is the sclera?

White Part

4

What is the Cornea?

Clear, transparent part at the front of the eye

5

Describe the sclera and the cornea
- Vascularised?
- Fibres?

Sclera is vascularised
Cornea is not

Sclera is haphazrd
Cornea is aligned

6

What is the iris?

The coloured part

7

What is the uveal tract?

The uveal tract is a layer of tissue between the outer layer (cornea and sclera) and the inner layer (Retina)

8

What does the uveal tract contain?

Anterior: Iris
Posterior: Choroid and Ciliary Body

9

Describe the retina?

This is where light hits and is transformed into electrical activity

10

Describe fluid from ciliary body?

Secreted between the iris and the lens
Keeps the anterior part inflated

11

What do rods detect? Where are they?

Low level light - good at night
Peripheral

12

What do cones detect? Where are they?

Detailed vision and colour
Central

13

Specifically, where are most of the cones?

They surround the macula - this is the area of detailed vision

14

Where is the blind spot?

Optic Disc

15

Name all of the extra-ocular muscles?

Superior Rectus
Inferior Rectus
Medial Rectus
Lateral Rectus
Inferior Oblique
Superior Oblique

16

Describe the movement of each muscle?

Superior Rectus - Moves eye up
Inferior Rectus - Moves eye down
Medial Rectus - Moves eye medially
Lateral Rectus - Moves eye laterally
Inferior Oblique - Moves eye up
Superior Oblique - Moves eye down

17

What does Adnexae mean?

This means all the extra parts that surround and protect the eye - lids, glands, tissue etc

18

What are the ocular Adnexae?

Lids
Lacrimal Gland
Lacrimal Sac
Naso-Lacrimal Duct

19

Where is the lacrimal gland found?

Superotemporal part of the orbit

20

Describe the visual pathway

Eyes
- Optic Nerve
- Optic Chiasma
- Optic Tract
- Optic Radiation
- Visual Cortex (of the occipital lobe)

21

Where (generally) in the brain is the optic chiasma?

Mid Brain

22

What cranial nerves serve the eye?

CN II - Optic
CN III - Oculomotor
CN IV - Trochlear
CN V - Trigeminal
CN VI - Abducens
CN VII - Facial

23

Describe the role of each cranial nerve?

CN II - Optic - Root of information
CN III - Oculomotor - Moves the eye
CN IV - Trochlear - Supplies superior oblique
CN V - Trigeminal - Sensory aspect to cornea
CN VI - Abducens - Movement
CN VII - Eye Protection (Closing Eyes)

24

What is emmetropia?

Normal vision

25

What is hypermetropia?

Long sighted

26

What is myopia?

Short sighted

27

What is astigmatism?

Defect in lens/eye meaning two light rays don't meet and focus leading to blurriness

28

What is Presbyopia?

Inability to read/see things that are up close (happens to everyone with old age)

29

If you can see the centre of a photo clearly but not the edges, what is affected?

Rods

30

If you can see the edge of a photo clearly but not the centre, what is affected?

Cones (Macula)