Flashcards in 1.1: Intro to Ophthalmology Deck (30)
Describe the blood supply to the eye?
From the Ophthalmic Artery
This is the first branch of the internal carotid
Branches from the ophthalmic supply to the eye and extra-ocular muscles
What is the conjunctiva?
The mucous membrane the covers the eye
What is the sclera?
What is the Cornea?
Clear, transparent part at the front of the eye
Describe the sclera and the cornea
Sclera is vascularised
Cornea is not
Sclera is haphazrd
Cornea is aligned
What is the iris?
The coloured part
What is the uveal tract?
The uveal tract is a layer of tissue between the outer layer (cornea and sclera) and the inner layer (Retina)
What does the uveal tract contain?
Posterior: Choroid and Ciliary Body
Describe the retina?
This is where light hits and is transformed into electrical activity
Describe fluid from ciliary body?
Secreted between the iris and the lens
Keeps the anterior part inflated
What do rods detect? Where are they?
Low level light - good at night
What do cones detect? Where are they?
Detailed vision and colour
Specifically, where are most of the cones?
They surround the macula - this is the area of detailed vision
Where is the blind spot?
Name all of the extra-ocular muscles?
Describe the movement of each muscle?
Superior Rectus - Moves eye up
Inferior Rectus - Moves eye down
Medial Rectus - Moves eye medially
Lateral Rectus - Moves eye laterally
Inferior Oblique - Moves eye up
Superior Oblique - Moves eye down
What does Adnexae mean?
This means all the extra parts that surround and protect the eye - lids, glands, tissue etc
What are the ocular Adnexae?
Where is the lacrimal gland found?
Superotemporal part of the orbit
Describe the visual pathway
- Optic Nerve
- Optic Chiasma
- Optic Tract
- Optic Radiation
- Visual Cortex (of the occipital lobe)
Where (generally) in the brain is the optic chiasma?
What cranial nerves serve the eye?
CN II - Optic
CN III - Oculomotor
CN IV - Trochlear
CN V - Trigeminal
CN VI - Abducens
CN VII - Facial
Describe the role of each cranial nerve?
CN II - Optic - Root of information
CN III - Oculomotor - Moves the eye
CN IV - Trochlear - Supplies superior oblique
CN V - Trigeminal - Sensory aspect to cornea
CN VI - Abducens - Movement
CN VII - Eye Protection (Closing Eyes)
What is emmetropia?
What is hypermetropia?
What is myopia?
What is astigmatism?
Defect in lens/eye meaning two light rays don't meet and focus leading to blurriness
What is Presbyopia?
Inability to read/see things that are up close (happens to everyone with old age)
If you can see the centre of a photo clearly but not the edges, what is affected?