1.7: Physiology 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.7: Physiology 1 Deck (38):
1

Describe CSF

Clear, colourless fluid (mainly composed of water)

2

Where is CSF produced?

Produced by the secretory epithelium of the choroid plexus

3

How much CSF is produced per day? How much of this is in the CNS?

500-600mls per day 150mls in the CNS

4

The CSF in the CNS is replaced XXXX times per day?

3-4 times per day

5

Give a very brief overview of CNS production and circulation?

Produced in ventricles Circulates around the subarachnoid space Reabsorbed into the venous circulation

6

The CSF is able to supply XXXXX and is able to remove XXXXX

Water/Ions/Amino Acids Metabolites

7

What are the functions of the CSF?

Protection (Cushions the brain so it floats in the cranial cavity) Homeostatic (pH affects pulmonary ventilation and cerebral blood flow - also contains hormones) Circulation (Medium for transporting nutrients and waste products)

8

How do you obtain CSF?

Lumbar Puncture

9

What can analysis of CSF tell us?

Helps to diagnose the brain, spinal cord and meninges

10

Describe what normal CSF contains/looks like?

Clear and colourless Contains a small amount of protein (15-45mg/dl) Contains a small amount of immunoglobulin Contains a small number of cells (1-5/ml)

11

Describe embryological development of CSF apparatus?

The developing nervous system is made up of a tube called the neural canal. The cavity later develops into the ventricles of the adult brain and the spinal cord canal. From the cells in the walls of the ventricles, the choroid plexus develops. The choroidal cells are specialised secretory cells that secrete the CSF

12

What produces the choroid fissure?

Developing arteries invaginate into the roof of the ventricle to form the choroid fissure

13

Where is the choroid plexus of the adult brain found?

In the 3rd, 4th and lateral ventricles

14

What is the choroid plexus?

A plexus (network) of cells that produce CSF

15

How many ventricles of the brain are there? What are they?

Four ventricles of the brain They are interconnected cavities where CSF is produced

16

Describe the structure of the choroid plexus?

Internal capillary Layer of ependymal cells that tight junctions between them Surrounded by CSF 

17

How is CSF secreted?

CSF secretion depends on active transport of ions The movement of polarised ions across the apical and basolateral membranes allows for the secretion of CSF

18

Describe the movement of ions into the CSF?

Na+ by active transport into CSF from blood This pulls along Cl- Water is pulled along by both ions

19

Describe the composition of CSF compared to blood?

More Na+ More Cl- Less K+ Less Protein Less Glucose

20

Describe the relationship between CSF secretion and arterial blood pressure

CSF secretion by the choroid plexus is an active process and is not determined by the arterial blood pressure

21

Name the ventricles?

Two lateral ventricles 3rd 4th

22

In which ventricle(s) is CSF first formed?

Choroid Plexus of the lateral ventricles

23

Describe CSF circulation? (Just through ventricles)

Formed by choroid plexus of lateral ventricles Passes through inter ventricular foraminae into 3rd More CSF added by choroid plexus in room of 3rd Passes into cerebral aqueduct Into fourth ventricle More CSF added by choroid plexus of 4th ventricle

24

Where does CSF go after it has been in the 4th ventricle?

Circulates in the subarachnoid space Some enters the central canal of the spinal chord Reabsorbed by the arachnoid granulations in the superior saggital sinus

25

Where is the blood brain barrier?

This is at the endothelial cells in brain capillaries

26

Function of the blood brain barrier?

This protects the brain from many common bacterial infections and toxins

27

What is the main obstacle for drug delivery to the CNS?

The blood brain barrier

28

Describe tumours that can affect the ventricles, choroid plexus and CSF?

- Choroid Plexus Tumours - Colloid Cyst

29

Describe ventricular haemorrhage?

This is accumulation of blood in the ventricles

30

What is an epidural haetoma?

Arterial bleed between dura and skull

31

What is an subdural haemorrhage?

Venous bleed between the dura and the arachnoid

32

What is a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Haemorrhage into the subarachnoid space

33

What is hydrocephalus?

Accumulation of CSF in the ventricles or around the brain (either due to obstruction or overproduction) Causes increase in CSF pressure and ventricular enlargmenet

34

Describe idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

This is increased CSF pressure for no obvious reason May have headaches and visual field disturbances due to papilloedema

35

What is papilloedema?

This is swelling of the optic discs due to raised intra-cranial pressure Presents with visual symptoms - blurring, loss of vision, enlarged blind spot

36

Function of aqueous humour?

This bathes the structures within the eyes Provides oxygen and metabolites Contains bicarbonate to buffer H+ produced by eye structures

37

Where is aqueous humour produced?

Ciliary Body

38

Describe aqueous humour circulation?

Ciliary Body Posterior Chamber Anterior Chamber Drains into the canal of Schlemm