1st Semester Exam (McIntyre) Flashcards Preview

World History > 1st Semester Exam (McIntyre) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1st Semester Exam (McIntyre) Deck (161):
0

5 things needed for civilization

1.Advanced technology
2. Advanced cities
3. specialized workers
4. Complex institutions
5. Record keeping

1

Five themes of geography (mr.help)

1.Movement
2.region
3. Human environment interaction
4. Location
5. Place

2

Latitude (runs and measures)

Runs: e&w
Measures: n&s

3

Longitude (runs and measures)

Run: n&s
Measures: w&e

4

Time

24 time zones.
United States: pacific, mt, central, eastern

5

Prime meridian

On imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the south pole through Greenwich, England

6

4 oceans

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctica

7

7 continents

North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, Europe

8

Neolithic revolution

People shift from food gathering to food producing

9

Nomad

A member of the group that has no permanent home, in search of food and water

10

Domestication

Taming of animals for human use

11

Cuneiform

Invented by Samarians. A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols

12

Fertile Crescent

An ark of rich farmland between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea

13

Mesopotamia

Land between rivers (Tigris and Euphrates)

14

Polytheism

Belief in many gods

15

Empire

Political unit in which a number of people or countries that are controlled by a single ruler

16

Hammurabi

Creates a code of laws for the Babylonian empire

17

Restitution vs reconciliation

Restitution: an act of restoring to original condition or giving an equivalent or an injury

Reconciliation: to restore a friendship

18

Sumerians

One of the first groups of people that formed civilization

19

Silt

Rich new soil

20

Euphrates and Tigris

Rivers flooded once or more a year, leaving rich soil. Unpredictable And silt

21

Irrigation

Supply water to land or crops to help growth

22

Dynasty

A series of rulers from of family

23

City-state

A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit

24

Nile

4100 mile (longest in the world) River flowing through Egypt

25

Delta

100 mile before end of Nile, lower Egypt, formed by deposits of silt at mouth of a river

26

Theocracy

Government in which the ruler is viewed as defined figure

27

Mummification

A process in embalming dry corpse to prevent them from decaying

28

Hieroglyphics

Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sound

29

Pyramid

Burial places for old kingdom pharaohs

30

Monotheistic

The belief of one God

31

Pharaohs

King of Egypt considered a God as well as the political and military leader

32

Indian subcontinent

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh

33

Monsoon

A wind that shifts direction at certain times of each year

34

Harappa

Characterized by so sophisticated city planning located by the Indus River

35

Plumbing

In Indus valley engineers invented sophisticated plumbing

36

Loess

Fertile soil, looks like yellow silk from Haung He

37

Haung He

Yellow river

38

two rivers flown from Mountains west to Pacific ocean in China

Yangtze (Chang jiang)
Yellow river (haung he)

39

Yangtze

Chang Jiang

40

Xia

First Chinese dynasty

41

Shang

Second dynasty 1700-1027 BC

42

Zhou (joe)

3rd dynasty 1027-256 Longest dynasty!!!!

43

Oracle bones

Animal bones and tortoise shell the Chinese priest had scratched questions for the gods

44

Mandate of heaven

Claim divine approval

45

Dynastic cycle

Pattern of rise, decline and replacement of dynasties

46

Feudalism

Political system in which lords are granted The use of land legally owned by the king

47

Qin

Replaces Zhou dynasty in 3rd century

48

Cast iron

During the Zhou dynasty, one of their innovations was blast furnaces that produced cast iron to create weapons & farm tools

49

Mahenjo-daro

Early Indus River civilization( also called Harrapan civilizations) that had innovative plumbing system close to the one created in the 1900s

50

Brahma

Creator of the universe

51

Vishnu

Preserves the universe

52

Shiva

Destroyer of the universe

53

Reincarnation

The process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding

54

Karma

The good and the bad deeds performed by a person, which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebirth

55

Enlightenment

A state of perfect wisdom and which one understands basic truth about the universe

56

Jainism

Values all life

57

Siddhartha Gautama

Founder of Buddhism

58

Vedas

Means knowledge, written to educate priest about rituals

59

Caste system

Division of social rank and tasks developed by Aryans during conquest

60

List the 5 Caste systems

Brahmins - priest
Kshatriyas- warrior
Vaishyas- merchants
Shudras- peasants/ unskilled workers
Untouchable- outcaste

61

Aryans

White

62

Dharam

Teachings

63

Nirvana

An awakening to the truth

64

Buddhism

Fonder- Buddha
Quite prayer, karma, reincarnation

65

Hinduism

Sacred animal- cow
Polytheistic, oldest religions, yoga

66

Indo-Europeans

A group of people began to migrate to the Indian subcontinent (white)

67

Ganesh

God of wisdom and good luck
The son of shiva

68

Torah

The first five books of the Hebrew bible

69

Covenant

A mutual promise or agreement

70

Moses

The man who led the Israelites out of slavery

71

Israel

A kingdom of the United Israelites last from about 1020 to 922 BC; now the Jewish homeland

72

Abraham

To be father of the Hebrew people

73

Monotheistic

Believing in one God

74

Solomon

Build the temple

75

Kind David

Establishes Jerusalem as the capital

76

Warring states period

Zhou falls: Confucius, Daoism, legalism

77

Varna

Skin color (Aryana's were lighter)

78

8 fold path

Know the truth
Say nothing to hurt others
Practice meditation
Control your thoughts
Resist evil
Free your mind from evil
Work for the goods of others
Respect life

79

Ark of the covenant

Contained the tablets of Moses law

80

Saul

Success in driving out the philistines from the central hills. Portrayed in the Hebrew bible as a tragic man, who was given to bouts of jealousy

81

Confucius

China's most influential scholar

82

Daoism

Taught that people should be guided by a universal forced called the dao (the way)

83

Legalism

Qin shi hanugdi
Strict
Burns the analects
Great Wall of china

84

Shi huangdi

First emperor

85

Qin dynasty

Replaces the Zhou dynasty in the 3rd century

86

Autocracy

Government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner

87

Bureaucracy

System of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of government

88

Filial piety

Respect shown by children of their parents and elders

89

Yin and yang

Chinese thought, the two powers that govern the natural rhythms of life

90

Analects

Confucius spent the remainder of his life teaching. His students later collected his words in a book called the analects (Confucius book)

91

Civil service exam

To serve in the government

92

Great Wall of china

Created in Qin on the backs of peasants

93

Impacts of Greece geography

Sea-lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade

Lack of fertile land leads to small population

Mountains: polis because Greece is not unified

94

Dorians

Move into Greece after the Mycenaeans civilization collapses and they are dumb, can't read and write

95

Homer

Blind storyteller

96

Acropolis

A fortified hilltop in an Ancient Greek city

97

Phalanx

Feared by all, formation of soldiers with Spears, shields

98

Oligarchy

Rule by small group of powerful merchants and artisans

99

Pericles and his 3 goals

1. Pay politicians: to strengthen democracy
2. Strength the Athens empire: make navy bigger
3. Glorifying Athens

100

Peloponnesian war (Athens vs Sparta)

Lasting from 431 to 404 BC, in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies

101

Polis

City-state

102

Aristotle

Student of Plato, uses rules of logic for argument tutors 13-year old prince Alexander the Great

103

Alexander the Great

Smart, the Iliad under his pillow, his focus was more about conquering and not governing

104

Hellenistic period

Greek blended with Egyptian, Persian, Indian

105

Alexandria

Egyptian city becomes center of Hellenistic civilization

106

Athens (characteristics, gov, citizen)

Characteristics: education, creative, Value individual, open minded
Gov: democracy
Citizens: only native-born, property-owning males are citizens

107

Sparta

Spartan values: duty, strength, not individuality, discipline over freedom. Also has the most powerful army in Greece

108

Persian war (Greece vs Persia)

The series of wars in the 5th century BC, in which Greek city states battled the Persian empire. (Athens and Sparta worked together defeating Persians realizing they were more powerful when they are one)

109

Mycenae

An indo-European person settled on the Greek mainland around 2000bc

110

Hoptiles

The foot soldiers of this army stood side by side, each holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other

111

Tyranny

A nation under cruel and oppressive government

112

Darius

Kind of Persia, Alexander the Great defeats Persia again and forces him to flee

113

Xerxes

Darius the great's son and successor , assembled an enormous invasion force to crush Athens (300 Spartans hold them for 3 days)

114

Pheidippides

Builds the Parthenon- a large temple to honor goddess Athena and within the temple he crafts a 30 foot statue of Athena

115

Guru

Teacher (yoga, spiritual)

116

Parthenon

A large temple to honor goddess Athena

117

Athena

Goddess of wisdom

118

Allegory of the cave

All these prisoners in a cave and sees shadows thinking they are true and man comes out and can't see and goes and sees that there is a big world out there and comes and frees the other prisoners and they can't see and are in pain from the light so they murder him

119

Monarchy

type of gov led by a king

120

Aristocracy

Type of gov led by nobles or aristocrats

121

Democracy (indirect and direct)

Indirect- people vote for representative and the representatives make decisions (republic)
Direct- people vote on every specific issue

122

Helots

In Sparta, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked on (basically slaves)

123

Archimedes

Hellenistic scientist, studied at Alexandria, invented screw, pi, and buoyancy (makes boats float)

124

Odysseus

Fought in the Trojan war, famous poem written by homer about his 10 year journey back from the Trojan war

125

Ptolemy

After Alexander's death, he took over Egypt, declared himself pharaoh and established a dynasty

126

Greek theater

Drama comedy and tragedy

127

Plato

Taught by Socrates, wrote the republic

128

The republic

Book written by Plato, said to be about Socrates

129

Minoans

Lived in Greece, specifically Crete at very beginning

130

Socrates

Believed in absolute standards for truth and justice. He was a "gadfly" to the gov. He got tried when he was 70 for corrupting the cities youth and neglecting the gods. He was put to death by hemlock

131

Philip II

King of Macedonia, father of Alexander, took over Greece and was the first person to use phalanx

132

Epicureanism

Made by Epicurus: based upon 5 senses, live for the now, achieve harmony of body and mind. NO POLITICS

133

Stoicism

Made by zeno: live harmoniously with the will of God or the natural laws

134

Trojan war (Mycenaeans (Greek) vs Trojans)

A Greek army destroyed Troy because Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen Greeks give Trojans a horse.....Greek wins

135

Helen

Beautiful wife of the Greek king

136

Golden age

Strengthened democracy
Beautiful Athens
Strengthened empire

137

Punic wars (Rome and Carthage)

1st- over the control of Sicily lasting 23 years
2nd- Hannibal led army and elephants through the alps to the back of Rome and caused a lot of destruction until Scorpio planned to attack Carthage and Hannibal had to retreat to protect his city
3rd- Rome destroyed Carthage completely and sold the people to slavery
ROME WON ALL 3

138

Tribunes

Representatives elected by the plebeians that protect fairness

139

Plebeians

Common farmers and majority of the population in Rome

140

Barbarians

What Romans called anyone that was not Rome, including the Huns led by Attila

141

Christianity

Started when Christ died, monotheistic

142

Gladiators

Professional fighters who fought to the death in public

143

Republic

Indirect democracy

144

Jesus

Born in Bethlehem, taught public ministry, followed by 12 disciples, became a threat to roman leaders and was crucified

145

Aqueducts

Made by roman engineers to bring water into cities and town

146

1st Triumvirate

Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus

147

2nd Triumvirate

Lepidus, mark Anthony, and Octavian

148

Dictator

All powerful ruler when crisis arises

149

Pax Romana

"Roman peace" started when Octavian ruled and ended when Marcus Aurelius died

150

Octavian (Augustus)

Forced Lepidus to retire then mark Anthony fell in love with cleopatra and they combined armies, Octavian said mark Anthony was going to rule from Egypt and civil war broke out but Octavian won and was called Augustus meAning "the exalted one"

151

The colosseum

From "colossus" meaning gigantic, where gladiators fought, sports stadiums today are modeled after them

152

Constantine

Fighting a battle and prayed for help from Jesus, saw a cross and put it on his soldiers shields and won the battle, end of Christian persecution, next emperor theodolites made christianity the official religion of Rome

153

Diocletian

Emperor after Pax Romana, split Rome into eastern(Greek speaking) and western (Latin speaking) and took over eastern Rome and the western had a co ruler

154

Constantinople

Capital of Byzantine empire, moved by Constantine

155

Attila the Hun

Leader of the barbarians and huns, led attacks on Rome but lost

156

Patricians

Wealthy landowners who held most of the power

157

Julius Caesar

Controlled France, marched his armies into Rome, Pompey fled, beat pompeys army and was named dictator for life. He was very popular. Senators were worried so his bff Marcus brus and others killed him. Death ends the roman republic

158

Islam

Submission to the will of allah, a religion based on Allah and Quran
Jesus is a prophet

159

Muslim

One who has submitted. Follower of Islam

160

Torah

First five books of the Bible that is Jewish written law/Bible